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How have humans influenced the inheritance of traits in vari

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Susan Schuber

on 22 April 2015

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Transcript of How have humans influenced the inheritance of traits in vari

How have humans influenced the inheritance of traits in various organisms?
Animal Husbandry
the management and care of farm animals by humans for profit

traits that are advantageous to humans are further developed

Examples
1. milk production
2. behavior
3. amount of meat produced
4. number of eggs laid
Gene Therapy
an experimental technique used to treat or prevent disease (thought of in 1972)

a corrected gene (that is created using genetic modification) is added where the defective gene is located

currently only used in humans during clinical trials (i.e. gene therapy is still being researched

hope to treat cancer, cystic fibrosis, heart disease, diabetes, hemophilia and AIDS
Selective Breeding
the process by which humans breed other animals or plants for specific traits

been used since the Ice Age when humans started to stay in one spot instead of being nomads

used in farming and companion animal industries


Genetic Modifications
organisms that have their DNA changed in a laboratory setting

mostly used in plants and products designed for human consumption

How does this work?
1. Target gene is removed from DNA sequence
2. Host cell (typically plasmid) is cut
3. Target gene is placed into the empty space plasmid
4. Plasmid is placed in bacteria
5. Bacteria is copied and modified gene can be used in new organism

Benefits
illnesses/diseases can be prevented by modifying the gene that causes them
infectious diseases can be treated by adding a gene that contains the correct antigen/antiviral proteins
most desirable traits can be included in another organisms' DNA
increase genetic diversity
change the heredity of plants/animals to include treatments
Benefits
gives a chance to cure an incurable disease

treatments are longer lasting and more stable (ex. less injections for diabetes treatment)

could eliminate the use of drugs in some treatments


Risks
very expensive and procedures must be very exact

wrong cell could be targeted

weak regulations/ethical concerns

effect on other organs and unwanted immune system responses

unwanted infections from virus being used


Risks
Benefits
Risks
Benefits
Risks
changes can be irreversible after several generations
moral/ethical dilemmas
unknown health effects/allergens due to lack of the time period of the research
possible changes to the environment
lack of diversity in organisms
economic benefit for farmers
increased availability of food products
allows breeding of high quality males to a variety of high quality females
rules and regulations have been set by the EPA (unlike genetic engineering)
allows animals not native to the area to survive

destroys environments to make room for housing and grazing areas
the large amount of animals kept in the same facility can cause pollution from animal waste
can change ecosystem by domesticating animals
diseases can spread rapidly
hybrid organisms can unintentionally be produced
improved seed quality
insect and disease resistance
ability to grow crops in areas not known for its ability to grow crops
higher milk production
larger, fitter animals
more eggs
domesticated behavior
special features for safety for humans
designer breeds
losing traits from the gene pool
species extinction
environmental changes
other species could die out
damaging to health of animal
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