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Specifying a Purpose and Research Questions or Hypotheses

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chelsea von

on 3 March 2015

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Transcript of Specifying a Purpose and Research Questions or Hypotheses

Main Idea
The main reason for purpose statements, research hypotheses, and research questions is to identify the main direction or intent of a study.
These elements are the foundation to a study.
What's the Big Deal?
Purpose, Hypotheses, Research Questions Tips & Tricks
Qualitative Research
Writing the Hypothesis
Purpose Statement Guidelines
Single sentence
Use key identifier words such as, "The purpose of this study is..."
Consider mentioning the study is "qualitative"
Include the central phenomenon
Use qualitative words e.g. explore, understand, discover
Note the participants
Refer to the research site where participants will be studied
Qualitative Research
Open-ended, general questions
Two types:
Central question - the most general question you can ask
"How" or "What"
Subquestions - refines the central question into specific, topical questions
Procedural vs. Issue
Qualitative Research
Purpose Statement Components
Indicates intent to explore or understand the central phenomenon with specific individuals
Purpose Statements
Central Phenomenon
Concept or process explored
Focus on a single concept or process rather than relating two or more ideas
Emerging Process
Purpose and questions may change based on the responses from participants
Specifying a Purpose and Research Questions or Hypotheses

Chelsea Von Iderstein, Krystel Rae Davis, Deanna Thagard
Purpose statement:
a sentence in an educational study that states the overall direction or objective of the study.
Research questions:
questions that focus the purpose of the study into specific areas of inquiry.
Hypotheses:

(an idea you’re proving)
statements that narrow down the purpose statement into specific predictions about the relationship among the variables
(groups affected by the event or issue).
(Creswell, 2012)
(Creswell, 2012)
(Creswell, 2012)
(Creswell, 2012)
These statements and questions are important because they help guide the research. They steer data collection in the direction needed to help understand the results of the study. It is important to be clear and concise in order to not lose the reader throughout the study.
Writing Research Questions
restates the purpose
describes the participants reactions to a single variable, comparing variables or relate variables
(Creswell, 2012)
Qualitative Research
Research Questions Guidelines
Expect questions to change and emerge during the study
Begin with words such as “how” or “what” rather than "why"
Ask only a few general question (5-7)
Use neutral, exploratory language rather than leading questions

Hint:
In both quantitative and qualitative research the
purpose statement
is usually found in the
"statement of the problem"
section.
Appears in the last sentence of the introduction; "The purpose of this study is..."
Hint:

Hypotheses
are
only found
in quantitative research. The investigator creates predictions about the outcome of the study
Hint:
In both quantitative and qualitative research that
narrows down
the purpose statement into
specific questions
they seek to answer throughout the study.
Research questions are typically at the end of the introduction of the
"statement of the problem"
section or immediately the review of literature.
(Creswell, 2012)
Research Question Components
#
The
Dress
What color is this dress?
Quantitative Research
purpose statement components

identifies the variables, their relationship, the participants, and site for research
purpose statement involves:
theory (if tested)
identify possible relationships of variables
use of words
purpose
,
intent
or
objective
identify theories, models, or conceptual framework
types of questions:

descriptive questions:
identifies a participants response to a single variable or question
relationship questions:
the magnitude of the relationship between two variables
comparison questions:
find out how two or more groups on an independent variable differ in terms of one or more outcome variables
what the researchers expect to find, the outcome of the study
an advanced prediction
Null hypothesis:
refers to a general statement or default position that there is no relationship between two variables (most traditional form of writing a hypothesis).
Alternative hypothesis:

directional:
researcher predicts the direction (higher, greater) of a change, difference, or a relationship for variables in a total population.
non-directional:
same as directional but does
not
indicate whether the direction of the prediction will be positive or negative.
Quantitative Research
purpose statement guidelines
write in a single sentence
be clear and specific for the readers "the purpose of this study is..."
if you are planning to use a theory in your study state, "the purpose of this study is to test (theory) "
when using variables there are 3 options: relate, compare, and describe.
specify the independent or dependent variables
placement of variables is important
identify participants and research site
Quantitative Research
Quantitative Research
guidelines for writing research questions:

pose a question
begin with "how" "what" or "why"
specify variables: independent, dependent, or control
use the words
describe, compare,
or
relate
to indicate the action or connections amongst the variables
indicate the participants and the research site for the study.
Quantitative Research
variables
independent variables:
is varied or manipulated in a study by the researcher. The presumed
cause
.
dependent variables:
the change that happens because of the independent variable or the response that is measured. The presumed
effect
.
controlled:
everything you want to remain constant and unchanging
The

Dress
Results:
74% saw a white and gold dress, while 26% saw it as blue and black.
independent variable:
color blindness or color deficiency, medical conditions that can affect vision, medications, lighting, and age are all factors that can influence color interpretation

dependent variable:
how our brains perceive information (color of the dress)
Based on
#
The
Dress
, Split up into groups and write the following:
Quantitative:
purpose statement, research questions, hypothesis
Qualitative:
purpose statement, central question, and subquestions
Full transcript