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Heart Murmur

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Emily B

on 14 May 2014

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Transcript of Heart Murmur

Heart Murmur
Emily Bond & Jillian Chisholm
Biology 11-3
Due May 12 2014

What is a heart murmur?
It is when the heartbeat contains an additional or unusual sound
Types of heart murmurs
1.
Innocent:
Can occur in a healthy heart. Does not need any medical attention.

2.
Abnormal: C
an cause serious heart problems.
Causes
Abnormal heart murmurs can be caused by blood flowing through a damaged or overworked heart valve
Abnormalities in the heart valves may exist at birth, occur from aging or by other heart problems.
Grading system
(Levine scale)

The location is more important then the volume .

Symptoms of heart problems caused by an abnormal heart murmur:
Skin appears blue
(fingertips and lips , most common)

Swelling

Weight gain

Shortness of breath


Treatments
Abnormal heart murmurs are treated with various types of medications, sometimes surgery is needed if the murmur leads to heart problems.



Who is normally effected by heart murmurs?
Children often have a heart murmur at birth and grow out of it.
Adults will develop them and they can disappear if the condition that caused the heart murmur is corrected.
Sources
> www.webmd.com/heart-disease/guide/heart-murmur-causes-treatments
> www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/topics/healthmurmur/
> www.canadianliving.com/health/prevention/what_you_should_know_about_heart_murmur.php
> www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/heart-murmurs/basics/syptoms/con-20028706
> www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/heart-murmurs/basics/treatments/con-20028706
> www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/heart-murmurs/basics/prevention/con-20028706
> www.healthcommunities.com/heart-murmur/heart-murmur-overview.shtml
> http://www.deviantart.com/users/outgoing?http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/heartmurmur/
> http://www.deviantart.com/users/outgoing?http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heart_murmur
> http://www.deviantart.com/users/outgoing?http://www.medicinenet.com/heart_murmur/page2.htm#what_causes_a_heart_murmur
> http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/heartmurmur/diagnosis.html
> http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/heart-murmurs/basics/prevention/con-20028706
> http://www.medicinenet.com/heart_murmur/page3.htm
> http://www.healthcommunities.com/heart-murmur/heart-murmur-overview.shtml

Photos
> http://www2.lurechildrens.org/ce/images/content/pg20_t1.JPG
> http://www.heart.org/idc/groups/heart-public/@wcm/@hcm/documents/image/~extract/UCM_450534~2~staticredition/large.jpg
> http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4a/Phonocardiograms_from_normal_and_abnormal_heart_sounds.png
> http://www.texasheart.org/images/ph_listen_dove-coo-murmur.jpg
> http://mypeted.com/wp-content/uploads/2-MitralValvedisease-1.jpg

Statistics
40%- 45% of children will have a heart murmur
10% of adults will be effected by a heart murmur
Innocent heart murmurs are common in pregnant women
Murmurs range from very faint to very loud. Sometimes they sound like a whooshing or swishing noise.
Many heart murmurs are harmless and referred to as innocent or functional. They are caused when blood rushes through the heart quickly during normal function while no heart disease may exist. There may be an underlying medical condition that can lead to an innocent murmur. These may include situations where the heart beats more quickly such as fever, anemia,hyperthyroidism, and pregnancy.
Valve Abnormalities
Abnormalities of the valves of the heart may cause a heart murmur.
Any of the heart valves may be affected and symptoms depend upon the severity of the valve damage and whether the blood flow pattern within the heart is maintained.
Each valve problem often leads to a specific character and timing of heart murmur.
Valve Abnormalities
Valve stenosis
Is narrowing of a heart valve, This often occurs over time as the valve scars, due to injury and scarring from infection such as in rheumatic fever or from a congenital birth defect.
This causes the heart muscle to work harder to push blood through the narrowed opening and possible heart failure.
Valve regurgitation (or insufficiency)
Is a valve that leaks causing blood to pass backward against the normal blood flow pattern in the heart. A valve may have both stenosis and regurgitation.
Valve Abnormalities
Valve sclerosis
Is the mild narrowing and stiffening of the valve (most often seen in the aortic valve) due to aging. It is associated with atherosclerotic heart disease.
Valve prolapse
Is a bowing of a valve that causes some leaking and most often involves the mitral valve.

Endocarditis

Is an infection of the lining of the heart that may involve and destroy a heart valve. The source of the infection is usually elsewhere in the body and it travels via the bloodstream to infect the heart. Most often, there is a previous underlying heart condition.
Holes in the walls of the heart (the septum that divides the heart chambers) can be the source of a heart murmur as well.
Doctors grade heart murmurs depending on how loud the extra sound is, on a scale from 1 to 6.

2. The murmur is faint but immediately audible on placing the stethoscope on the chest.

3. A loud murmur readily audible but with no palpable thrill.

4. A loud murmur with a palpable thrill.

5. A loud murmur with a palpable thrill. The murmur is so loud that it is audible with only the rim of the stethoscope touching the chest.

6. A loud murmur with a palpable thrill. The murmur is audible with the stethoscope not touching the chest but lifted just off it.
1. The murmur is only audible while listening carefully for some time.
Enlarged liver

Enlarged veins in neck

Heavy sweating

Chest pain

Dizziness/fainting
Some medications are:
Beta blockers (regulate heart rhythm)
Antibiotics (to reduce possible heart problems)
Statins (lower cholesterol)
Internal and External signs
Doctors looking for a heart murmur will check for signs of illness or physical problems. For example, your doctor may look for a bluish color on your skin. In infants, doctors may look for delayed growth and feeding problems.
External
There are many different internal signs of a heart murmur, and many different sources within the heart that can have problems, all have different classifications within the Systolic and Diastolic categories. Most commonly a heart murmur will be noticeable within the valves, with some signs noticeable at the aorta, apex and within all borders of the heart.
Internal
Diagnostic Tests and Procedures
If your doctor thinks you or your child has an abnormal heart murmur, he or she may recommend one or more of the following tests:
Chest X Ray
A painless test that creates pictures of the structures inside your chest, such as your heart, lungs, and blood vessels. This test is done to find the cause of symptoms, such as shortness of breath and chest pain.
Diagnostic Tests and Procedures

An EKG (electrocardiogram) is a test that detects and records the heart's electrical activity.
An EKG shows how fast the heart is beating and its rhythm (steady or irregular), it also records the strength and timing of electrical signals as they pass through each part of the heart.
This test is used to detect and locate the source of heart problems. The results from an EKG also may be used to rule out certain heart problems.
EKG
Diagnostic Tests and Procedures

Echocardiography (EK-o-kar-de-OG-ra-fee), or echo, is a painless test that uses sound waves to create pictures of your heart. The test shows the size and shape of your heart and how well your heart's chambers and valves are working.

Echo also can show areas of poor blood flow to the heart, areas of heart muscle that aren't contracting normally, and previous injury to the heart muscle caused by poor blood flow.

There are several types of echo, including a stress echo. This test is done both before and after a stress test. During this test, you exercise to make your heart work hard and beat fast. If you can’t exercise, you may be given medicine to make your heart work hard and beat fast. Echo is used to take pictures of your heart before you exercise and as soon as you finish.
Stress echo shows whether you have decreased blood flow to your heart (a sign of coronary heart disease).
Echocardiography
Prevention
While there's not much you can do to prevent a heart murmur, it is reassuring to know that heart murmurs are not a disease and are often harmless. For children, many murmurs go away on their own as they grow. For adults, murmurs may disappear as the underlying condition causing them improves.
A heart murmur in itself causes no symptoms and it generally cannot be heard by the person affected. It is the underlying structural issue of the heart that may cause problems

Surgery is often necessary to treat severe heart abnormalities:
Replacement of defective heart valves with artificial ones
Correction of congenital heart defects
Removal of heart tumors

Current Research
Research is being conducted to evaluate the accuracy of using an artificially-intelligent stethoscope to diagnosis heart conditions
In another study, researchers are looking at the possible connection between gene mutations and congenital heart defects
Scientists are learning more about prenatal heart development and are hoping to be able to diagnosis congenital heart defects before birth in the future.
Research is being conducted to evaluate the accuracy of using an artificially-intelligent stethoscope to diagnosis heart conditions. If this instrument proves reliable, it may help physicians determine if heart murmurs in children may be caused by congenital heart disease and if further testing is required.
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