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Deviance in Sport

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by

Kate Bancroft

on 18 July 2014

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Transcript of Deviance in Sport

sportsmanship?
is it still there?

Cheating
Corruption and Bungs
Relative Deviance
Behaviour that is acceptable in a subculture but not in society as a whole
Individual Players lacking moral restraint
More socially acceptable than before
Between Players
Genetics – the enforcer, low self-discipline
Frustration – the red mist
Loss of self-identity – following the actions of the crowd
Social learning – following role models, ‘smelling the liniment’
Amongst Spectators
Supporters
Fans
Hooligans

Make sure you know the difference
Hooliganism against public
Cost of policing and stewarding
Deviance in Sport
A2 Module
Context
Olympic Ideal
Victorian sport
Fair Play
Kipling’s If
Definitions - Whats what?
???????
Behaviour that is outside the norm but with no intention to harm or break the rules

????
Behaviour that goes against the norm and has a detrimental effect on individuals and on society in general

????????
Behaviour that falls outside the norms or outside what is deemed to be acceptable

(Coakley 1992)
Positive Deviance - Examples
Overtraining
Sacrificing family life
Playing when injured
Negative Deviance - Examples
Drugs
Cheating
Bribery
Hooliganism
Illegal betting
Corruption and bungs
Player violence
Drugs

How addressed?
Segregation
CCTV
1990 Taylor Report
1994 All seaters
Stadium safety cert
Stadium safety officers
Police
Banning supporters
Travel clubs
Intelligence officers
Legislation
Illegal Betting
Player Violence
Answering Deviance Questions
Give examples of the behaviour
Give explanation of the methods used to control it
Look at possible reasons for the behaviour

DEBATE THE ISSUE
Deviance and the Contract to Compete
Not trying
Trying to lose
Deliberately cheating
Transgressing the ethics of the sport (biting)
Drugs, bribery

All negative deviance

But using all the tactics available not to lose within the expectations of the activity is Relative Deviance
Debating Point

Does sport exist in its own moral subculture?



DEBATE THE ISSUE
Causes of Deviance
‘Win at all costs’ attitude
The rewards so big that they encourage deviance
Punishments have less teeth
Violence in Sport
A spontaneous outburst
Premeditated and planned action
Between Players
Genetics – the enforcer, low self-discipline
Frustration – the red mist
Loss of self-identity – following the actions of the crowd
Social learning – following role models, ‘smelling the liniment’
Dealing with Violence
NGB
Police
In clubs
Individuals
Who should deal with which situations?
Research you own sport and the code of conduct
Prepare handout on this
Prepare a code of conduct for your club (what can be done to prevent violence?)
What is hooliganism?
Racist or Obscene
Fighting with other groups
Vandalism
Interference with the match
Hooliganism is;

Pre-organised
Looks for conflict with authority
Linked to alcohol
Large scale

Takes place;

Football grounds/streets/city centres/pubs/public transport/abroad
Elite rugby and cricket matches attract large numbers of spectators. Alcoholic refreshment is freely available and supporters from different teams sit together. There is little poor behaviour from spectators during these matches and no history of hooliganism.

Research details of fan misbehaviour in cricket and rugby – is the above statement true? (4)
Assuming it is true, why should this be the case? (6)
Causes of hooliganism?
No cause offered, but possible explanations…
Expression of masculinity (females involved?)
Outlet (but young males not involved?)
Tribal (but location seems not to matter)
Working class (if so why did it improve?)
Tension on the pitch (so why football?)
Political extremists (rare, not widespread)
Close rivalry (Bristol v Gloucester)

MULTI-CAUSAL ISSUE
How was it addressed?
Has significantly reduced since 1980s
Prevention of known hooligans travelling
Control of alcohol
Segregation
All seater
Policing and stewarding
CCTV
Police intelligence focus
Players behaviour
Club bans
FA campaigns
The Effects of Violence?
Poor treatment of the ‘real’ fan
Career threatening injury
Locked out of competition
Damaging to the reputation of the country
Damaging to the morale of the team
1995 in Ireland
Drugs
Hooliganism
Aggression & Violence
All sport involves some sort of CONFLICT!
If it is controlled it is FUNCTIONAL, but if it is not then it can become DYSFUNCTIONAL!
What does this picture say to you?
Complete you sheets using these points to help you!
CONFLICT CAN APPEAR IN WHAT FORMS?
CONFLICT can also be determined by the nature of the activity
Answer the exam questions on your sheet... Try and complete them without using your notes!
Traditional young male fans – ‘lads’ – may well be bored or feel excluded from the ‘new’ football

What’s changed?

ITS ON A BOOM!

Attendance
Finances
Ability to attract major foreign players
Image

Is the game still popular though?

100 police at games – more for ‘high risk’ games

Intelligence network about troublesome fans

CCTV – (It is now a crime to trespass on to the pitch (Football Offences Act) so CCTV has helped in tracing these criminals)

Police

Controlling Hooliganism

Are hooligans generally in their late teens or their 20s?
Why have many working classes been isolated from football?
Explain the ‘peak’ and ‘flow’ experience
What can trigger hooliganism?
How does the media heighten hooliganism?


In the Spotlight

Interest in drugs/dance cultures
Sport become more middle-class game

Sport become Americanised importing ideas such as:
Blaring music
Cheerleaders
Animal mascots
Licensed products
(key rings, clothes)


Why?

Spectator Safety

*All now unfenced and all-seated

*Family Enclosures

* National Community Programme – the scheme helps to increase local community involvement in clubs and promote better behaviour among young spectators

Clubs – have been forced by circumstances and legislation to spend lots of money to make their grounds hooligan proof

Spectator Safety
Spectator Safety

*All now unfenced and all-seated

*Family Enclosures

* National Community Programme – the scheme helps to increase
local community involvement in clubs and promote better behaviour among young spectators

100 police at games – more for ‘high risk’ games

Intelligence network about troublesome fans

CCTV – (It is now a crime to trespass on to the pitch
(Football Offences Act) so CCTV has helped in tracing these criminals)
Full transcript