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Latin

Latin grammar.
by

Meredith Oliver

on 1 May 2010

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Transcript of Latin

Conjugations Declensions 1st -are
2nd -ere
3rd -ere (short "e")
3rd-io -ere
4th -ire Active endings
Sg Pl
1st -o -mus
2nd -s -tis
3rd -t -nt Passive endings Sg Pl
1st -or -mur
2nd -ris -mini
3rd -tur -ntur 1st -ae
2nd -i
3rd -is
4th -us
5th -ei gen. sg.
ending All F, except for
agricola, poeta, & nauta Mostly M & N Watch for i-stems! Sg Pl
N -- -es
G -is
D -i -ibus
Ac -em -es
Ab -e -ibus
Sg Pl
N --
G -is
D -i -ibus
Ac --
Ab -ibus -ium -ia -ia -i -ium Mostly M & N All F except
dies & meridies Latin Notes Uses of Subjunctive Jussive

Purpose clause

Result clause

Indirect question

Indirect commands (Jussive noun clause)

Proviso clause

Relative clause of Characteristic

Fear Clause

Cum clauses

Conditions Conditions Contrary tofact present


Contrary to fact past
Simple fact present
Simple fact past
Future more vivid All indicative
Tense in name Imperfect subjunctive
"were...ing/ would..." Pluperfect subjunctive
"had.../ would have..." Present subjunctive
"should.../would..." If: protasis
Then: apadosis Stand alone present subjunctive.
Negative introduced by "ne"
Translate "Let..." ut + present or imperfect subjunctive
Negative introduced by "ne"
Translate ut: "in order that" or "so that" Translate
present: may...
imperfect: might... Ut + present or imperfect subjunctive
Negative introduced by "ut...non"
"So" word in main clause. "So" words:
ita
tam
sic
tantus Head verb + interrogative word + subjunctive Interrogative words:
quis/quid
qui/quae/quod
quam
quando
cur
ubi
unde
uter
utrum...an Introduced by ut or ne + command verb Indirect Discourse Indirect statement

2 other types use
subjunctive. Head verb + infinitive + subject accusative Conjugate infinitive
when translating. dummodo + subjunctive in subordinate clause
translate "provided that"
Negative: add "ne" To identify:
Subjunctive in relative clause
Often verb sum in main clause Translate "the sort who" or "of such a sort as" verb of fearing in main clause + ut or ne +subjunctive
Ut = negative
Ne = positive Cum Clauses Temporal



Circumstantial Causal



Concessive cum + indicative
translate "when" cum + subjunctive
translate "when" cum + subjunctive
translate "since" or "because" cum + subjunctive
translate "although"
"tamen" in main clause Nominative
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative Uses of Ablative ...of Means

...of Accompaniment

...of Manner

...of Personal Agent

...of Time Within Which

...with Cardinal Numbers

...of Place from Which no preposition
translate "with" or "by means of" cum + abl.
translate "with" cum + abl.
translate "with" Agent of passive verb
a or ab + agent in abl.
translate "by" Participles Present Active Present stem + -ns, -ntis
Declines like 3rd declension adj.
Translate: "...ing" Perfect Passive 4th principle part as 1st declension adj.
Translate: "having been ...ed" Future Active 4th principle part, drop -us add -urus, a, um
Translate: "about to ..." or "going to ..." Future Passive Present stem + -nudus, a, um
Translate: "about to be ...ed" or "going to be ..." Ablative Absolute abl. noun + abl. participle
Translate: "With (noun) (participle)..." Look for in Petronius Passive Periphrastic Future passive participle + form of "sum"
Translate with obligation: "must" or "have to" Always uses Dative of Agent Infinitives Actives:
Present

Perfect

Future Passives:
Present

Perfect 2nd Principle Part 3rd principle part, drop -i, add -isse Future active participle + esse
(two words! esse separate) 1st, 2nd, 4th: 2nd principle part, change final -e to -i
3rd & 3rd-io: 2nd principle part, drop -ere, add -i 4th principle part + esse
(two words.) We fear a Liar! Subjunctive Present Active 1st 2nd 3rd 4th Perfect Endings Sg Pl
1st -i -imus
2nd -isti -istis
3rd -it -erunt Sg Pl
1st -eram -eramus
2nd -eras -eratis
3rd -erat -erant Sg Pl
1st -ero -erimus
2nd -eris -eritis
3rd -erit -erint Pluperfect Endings Future Perfect Endings Perfect Active System add endings to perfect stem (3rd pp) Perfect Passive System Change 4th pp into a 1st declension adj. For perfect add present indicative form of sum
For pluperfect add imperfect indicative form of sum
For Future perfect add future indicative form of sum How to identify i-stems:

M & F: parisyllabic or nom ending is -s or -x
and base ending in two consonants.

N: ending in -al, -ar, or -e Future Less Vivid
Full transcript