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U.S. Presidents

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Savannah Dube

on 3 September 2013

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Transcript of U.S. Presidents

1. George Washington (1789-1797)
Vice President: John Adams
Party Affiliation: Independent

Foreign Policy Choices:
-Maintained neutrality throughout the French Revolution.
-Warned successors not to form long-term alliances.

Washington wanted the United States to avoid conflict with other nations so soon after gaining independence, because he knew that the U.S. was not powerful enough to take part in another war.

Domestic Policy Choices:
-Resigned from office after two terms, setting the standard for future presidents.
-Prevented the Whiskey Rebellion from escalating with a show of force.

Washington set a good precedent for future presidents with his actions, capping the presidential office to eight years and establishing the power of the government by stopping the Whiskey Rebellion.

2. John Adams (1797-1801)
Vice President: Thomas Jefferson
Political Affiliation: Federalist
Foreign Policy Choices:
-Refused to pay the bribe in the "XYZ Affair"
-Brought about a peaceful end to the Quasi-War.

Adams wanted to avoid war but stood up to France when they demanded an unreasonable bribe in the "XYZ Affair". He eventually achieved peace through a treaty ending the Quasi-War.

Domestic Policy Choices:
-Signed in the Alien and Sedition Acts
-Enacted heavy house and stamp taxes to pay for the military response to the "XYZ Affair".

Adams primarily left domestic affairs to Congress because he was a skilled negotiator and preferred dealing with foreign affairs. The domestic affirs that he was involved with linked to foreign affairs.
3. Thomas Jefferson (1801-1809)
Vice Presidents: Aaron Burr & George Clinton
Political Affiliation: Democratic-Republican
4. James Madison (1809-1817)
Vice Presidents: George Clinton & Elbridge Gerry
Political Affliation: Democratic-Republican
5. James Monroe (1817-1825)
Vice President: Daniel D. Tompkins
Political Affiliation: Democratic-Republican

6. John Quincy Adams (1825-1829)
Vice President: John C. Calhoun
Political Association: Democratic-Republican
7. Andrew Jackson (1829-1837)
Vice Presidents: John C. Calhoun & Martin Van Buren
Political Affiliation: Democratic

8. Martin Van Buren (1837-1841)
Vice President: Richard Mentor Johnson
Political Affiliation: Democratic

9. William Henry Harrison (1841)
Vice President: John Tyler
Political Affiliation: Whig
10. John Tyler (1841-1845)
Vice President: None
Political Affiliation: Whig
11. James K. Polk (1845-1849)
Vice President: George M. Dallas
Political Affiliation: Democratic
12. Zachary Taylor (1849-1850)
Vice President: Millard Fillmore
Political Affiliation: Whig
13. Millard Fillmore (1850-1853)
Vice President: None
Political Affiliation: Whig
14. Franklin Pierce (1853-1857)
Vice President: William R. King
Political Affiliation: Democratic
15. James Buchanan (1857-1861)
Vice President: John C. Breckinridge
Political Affiliation: Democratic
16. Abraham Lincoln (1861-1865)
Vice Presidents: Hannibal Hamlin & Andrew Johnson
Political Affiliation: Republican
17. Andrew Johnson (1865-1869)
Vice President: None
Political Affiliation: Democratic
18. Ulysses S. Grant (1869-1877)
Vice President: Henry Wilson & Schuyler Colfax
Political Affiliation: Republican
19. Rutherford B. Hayes (1877-1881)
Vice President: William A. Wheeler
Political Affiliation: Republican
20. James A. Garfield (1881)
Vice President: Chester A. Arthur
Political Affiliation: Republican
21. Chester A. Arthur (1881-1885)
Vice President: None
Political Affiliation: Republican
22. Grover Cleveland (1885-1889)
Vice President: Thomas A. Hendricks
Political Affiliation: Democratic
23. Benjamin Harrison (1889-1893)
Vice President: Levi P. Morton
Political Affiliation: Republican
24. Grover Cleveland (1893-1897)
Vice President: Adlai Stevenson I
Political Affiliation: Democratic
25. William McKinley (1897-1901)
Political Affiliation: Republican
Vice Presidents: Garret Hobart & Theodore Roosevelt
26. Theodore Roosevelt (1901-1909)
Vice President: Charles W. Fairbanks
Political Affiliation: Republican
27. William Howard Taft (1909-1913)
Vice President: James S. Sherman
Political Affiliation: Republican
28. Woodrow Wilson (1913-1921)
Vice President: Thomas R. Marshall
Political Affiliation: Democratic
29. Warren G. Harding (1921-1923)
Vice President: Calvin Coolidge
Political Affiliation: Republican
30. Calvin Coolidge (1923-1929)
Vice President: Charles G. Dawes
Political Affiliation: Republican
31. Herbert Hoover (1929-1933)
Vice President: Charles Curtis
Political Affiliation: Republican
32. Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933-1945)
Vice Presidents: John Nance Garner, Henry A. Wallace, & Harry S. Truman
Political Affiliation: Democratic
33. Harry S. Truman (1945-1953)
Vice President: Alben W. Barkley
Political Affiliation: Democratic
34. Dwight D. Eisenhower (1953-1961)
Political Affiliation: Republican
Vice President: Richard Nixon
35. John F. Kennedy (1961-1963)
Vice President: Lyndon B. Johnson
Political Affiliation: Democratic
36. Lyndon B. Johnson (1969-1969)
Vice President: Hubert Humphrey
Political Affiliation: Democratic
37. Richard Nixon (1969-1974)
Vice Presidents: Spiro Agnew & Gerald Ford
Political Affiliation: Republican
38. Gerald Ford (1974-1977)
Vice President: Nelson Rockefeller
Political Affiliation: Republican
39. Jimmy Carter (1977-1981)
Vice President: Walter Mondale
Political Affiliation: Democratic
40. Ronald Reagan (1981-1989)
Vice President: George H. W. Bush
Political Affiliation: Republican
41. George H. W. Bush (1989-1993)
Vice President: Dan Quayle
Political Affiliation: Republican
42. Bill Clinton (1993-2001)
Vice President: Al Gore
Political Affiliation: Republican
43. George W. Bush (2001-2009)
Vice President: Dick Cheney
Political Affiliation: Republican
Foreign Policy Choices:
-Doubled the U.S. territory with the Louisiana Purchase in 1803.
-Remained neutral and banned European trade while Napolean advanced in Europe.

Jefferson tried to stay neutral in foreign affairs while maintaining trade, but eventually ceased trade to avoid conflict.
Domestic Policy Choices:
-Reduced spending in the federal administration and armed forces.
-Repealed the Alien and Sedition Acts.

Jefferson greatly reduced the national debt by making cuts and reducing the size of the army. He also encouraged agriculture and personally pardoned victims of the Alien and Sedition acts. He wanted more power for individual states and less for the federal government.
Foreign Policy Choices:
-Started the War of 1812 with a list of complaints against Britain.
-Proved the United States to be a powerful nation with a victory in the War of 1812

Madison wanted to go to war with Britain for the impressment of American soldiers and arming of Indians, and proceeded to win the war sometimes called "The Second War for Independence".
Domestic Policy Choices:
-Allowed the charter of the bank of the United States to expire
-Supported a bill to charter a second bank of the United States.

Madison was primarily focused on foreign affairs and the War of 1812 during his presidency, but he supported a new bank in order to make war loans.
Foreign Policy Choices:
-Introduced the "Monroe Doctrine"
-Negotiated the Rush-Bagot Treaty of 1817 to resolve border disputes with Britain.

Monroe tried to improve relations with Britain and protect Latin American countries going through a revolutionary struggle similar to the US. War for Independence.
Domestic Policy Choices:
-Passed the Missouri Compromise
-Connected with citizens, causing his presidency to be known as "The Era of Good Feelings".

Monroe made national tours to spread good feelings and agreed upon the Missouri Compromise which added Maine as a free state and Missouri as a slave state as well as deciding for the future states of the Louisiana Territory.
Foreign Policy Choices:
-Opened up trade with various nations such as Brazil and Denmark.
-Settled questions about Britsh seizure of property during the War of 1812.

Adams arranged a lot of trade with foreign countries and wanted to settle trade with the British West Indies, but was prevented from doing so because he could not get funding.
Domestic Policy Choices:
-Signed the Tariff of 1828, nicknamed the "Tariff of Abominations" which protected American manufacturers but raised the price of many goods.
-Proposed the creation of a national university and bank as well as canals and roads as federal projects.

Adams was a supporter of the federal government sponsorimg projects to improve the conditions of society.
Foreign Policy Choices:
-Caused Texas to revolt against Mexico and declare independence.
-Nearly caused a war with France over a treaty in 1831, which was averted.

Jackson was not very involved with foreign affairs, however he tries to buy Texas from Mexico which led to a revolt, and almost caused a war with France over reparations for Napolean attacking American ships.
Domestic Policy Choices:
-Demanded a return to "hard money" such as gold and silver rather than bank notes, contributing to the panic of 1837.
-Bribed, forced, and convinced Indian tribes to move further west in a movement culminating in the "Trail of Tears".

Jackson fired many government officials and replaced them with people loyal to him during his time in office. He also stood against The Bank of the United States and called for a return to hard money.
Foreign Policy Choices:
-Made peaceful compromises with Britain when some citizens called for war.
-Proclaimed U.S. neutrality in relation to Canadian independence.

Van Buren used patient diplomacy to difuse several situations that could have led the United States to war with Britain.
Domestic Policy Choices:
-Called for an independent treasury to stabilize the American financial system.
-Ordered the removal of the Cherokee people in 1838, causing a fourth of their tribe to perish, and other tribes to launch attacks.

Van Buren called for an independent treasury system, took action against Indians, and did not support the annexation of Texas.
Foreign Policy Choices:
As his presidential term lasted only thirty-two days, Harrison was not involved in any signifigant foreign affairs, although he stated an intent to have little interference in military affairs and support of Americans making their way in the world.


Domestic Policy Choices:
-Stated that bills should only be vetoed if they are unconstitutional
-Expressed the belief that states should individually decide their stance on slavery.

Harrison gave the longest inaugural address in history, two hours in bad weather with no hat or coat. He subsequently caught pnemonia and died a month into his presidency without making any important decisions or taking any actions.
Foreign Policy Choices:
-Extended the Monroe Doctrine to Hawaii, beginning the process towards annexation
-Sent a key diplomatic mission to China resulting in the same trading rights as Britain.

Monroe had a successful term in relation to foreign affairs, sending diplomats to China, protecting Hawaii, and ending the war with the Indians.
Domestic Policy Choices:
-Vetoed various bills related to resurrecting the Bank of the United States.
-Annexed Texas even with much opposition

Tyler asserted himself as presidemt after Harrison's death, setting the standard for future transitions. However, he was isolated in office with no allies and awful relations with Congress.
Foreign Policy Choices:
-Negotiated with Britain to gain control of modern day Oregon, Idaho, and Washington as well as the Columbia River
-Declared and won the Mexican War, sometimes called "Mr.Polk's War", earning modern day California and New Mexico.

Much of Polk's actions in foreign affairs related to obtaining more territory in the west. He intended to end his presidency with the United States stretching from coast to coast.


Domestic Policy Choices:
-Implemented the Walker Tariff which taxed expensive items more than cheaper items
- Revived the Independent Treasury Act

Polk's domestic affair policies were closely related to the new territory obtained during his presidency. When he left office the issue of where slavery would and would not be allowed in the new territories was raging.
Foreign Policy Choices:
-Engaged in several small scale disputes such as supporting German liberals in 1848 and arguing with France and Portugal over reparation disputes.
-Formed the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty with Britain agreeing that neither would have exclusive ownership of a canal built across Nicaragua.

Taylor was not very involved with foreign affairs, although his administration dealt with several smaller conflicts. His biggest contribution was the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty.


Domestic Policy Choices:
-Urged California and New Mexico to apply for statehood
-Opposed the Compromise of 1850

Taylor stayed out of party politics, giving great amounts of authority to his cabinet, but keeping from having a close relationship with Congress. He wanted California and New Mexico to become slave-free states.
Foreign Policy Choices:
-Opened Japan for trade with the world.
-Prevented France from annexing Hawaii

Fillmore simultaneously expanded U.S. trade and limited American commitments outside the Western Hemisphere.

Domestic Policy Choices:
-Passed and enforced the Fugitive Slave Law
-Passed the Compromise of 1850

Fillmore tried to satisfy both sides of the slavery issue by making California and the District of Columbia slave-free and instituting the Fugitive Slave Law, however it just upset both parties.


Foreign Policy Choices:
-Purchased present day lower Arizona and New Mexico from Mexico with the Gadsden Purchase.
-Attempted to purchase Cuba from Spain but failed.

Pierce was known for his lack of leadership and tendency to give in under pressure, which made him less effective with foreign affairs.
Domestic Policy Choices:
-Signed the Kansas-Nebraska Act which allowed the territories self-determination.
-Chose extreme polititions for his cabinets, alienating his party's moderates.

Pierce was elected shortly after his son died and was distracted from his work because of it, beginning with cabinet choices that angered some. He also signed the Kansas-Nebraska Treaty which led to the events of Bloody Kansas.
Foreign Policy Choices:
-Failed relations with Nicaragua but eventually won transit
-Bullied smaller Central America and Carribean countries, earning ill will toward coercive American diplomacy.

Buchanan focused foreign affairs during his presidency on nations to the south attempting to spread the U.S. over the entire North American continent.
Domestic Policy Choices:
-Urged Congress to accept Kansas as a slave state
-Quelled an insurrection led by John Brown who wanted to fight slavery through an armed rebellion.

Buchanan stated in his inaugural address that citizens should collectively determine their state's position on slavery, meaning that he supported self-determination. He did little to calm growing tensions in the U.S. and left office right as the Civil War started.
Foreign Policy Choices:
-Set up a blockade of the Southern shoreline that Britain ignored, claiming it was a"paper blockade".
-Made the Civil War a war to abolish slavery rather than a war to preserve the United States, keeping England from siding with the Confederacy.

Lincoln was determined to win the Civil War, and made decisions that greatly helped the cause. He increased the blockade by about 500 ships by the end of the war and drastically reduced Confederacy exports as well as keeping other countries from helping them.


Domestic Policy Choices:
-Issued the "Emancipation Proclamation" which freed Confederacy slaves.
-Issued the "Homstead Act of 1862" which allowed settlers to buy areas of Western land very inexpensively to settle in.

Lincoln stayed strong throughout the Civil War, which he won for the Union, brought slavery to an end, and sped up westward expansion.
Foreign Policy Choices:
-Drove the French out of Mexico.
-Repaired relations with Great Britain.

Johnson enforced American policy by protecting Mexico from France, without mentioning the Monroe Doctrine by name. He also settled the issues between Great Britain and the U.S.
Domestic Policy Choices
-Implemented his own Reconstruction plan.
-Vetoed the Civil Rights Act of 1866, an action overidden by Congress.

Johnson took over from Lincoln after his assassination, and tried to pull the country together after the Civil War. He was eventually impeached from office.
Foreign Policy Choices:
-Negotiated the Alabama Claims in 1872 to resolve tensions with Britain.
-Did not interfere with the Cuban insurrection.

Grant did not interfere very much in foreign affairs because he was busy rebuilding the country, but he appointed Hamilton Fish as secretary of state and the two worked well together.
Domestic Policy Choices:
-Ratified the Fifteenth Amendment, giving all races the right to vote.
-Attempted to improve the U.S. Native American Policy.

Grant tried to satisfy everyone and ended up pleasing next to nobody. He ratified the Fifteenth Amendment and tried to help free slaves as well as making Southerners happy and trying to changed the Native American policy.
Foreign Policy Choices:
-Negotiated with China to reduce Chinese immigration to the U.S.
-Ordered the Army to stop Mexican bandits even if they had to enter Mexican Territory to do so.

Hayes had few problems with other nations besides Mexico, China and was not very interested in imperisalism.

Domestic Policy Choices:
-Sent soldiers to stop railroad worker strikes
-Supported the 1875 Specie Resumption Act

Hayes primarily wanted to unite the country, southerners and northereners, whites and blacks, he tried to keep them together.
Foreign Policy Choices:
-Appointed writer James Russell Lowell as U.S. minister to England.
-Appointed Lew Wallace, a former Union general and popular writer, to the post in Turkey.
Domestic Policy Choices:
-Recalled governemnt bonds, saving $10 million annually
-Replaced General Edwin A. Merritt with William H. Robertson as the collectorship of the port of New York.

Garfield was assassinated 100 days after his inauguration so he made few domestic policy choices.
Garfield did not have very much time in office to make important foreign policy choices.
Foreign Policy Choices:
-Sought the construction of steam-powered steel cruisers, steel rams, and steel-clad gunboats.
-Congress refused to ratify a treaty with Nicaragua to build the Panama Canal.
Arthur took the first steps toward building a modern navy, but otherwise did not engage much in foreign policy.
Domestic Policy Choices:
-Signed the Pendleton Civil Service Reform
-Only signed the Chinese Exclusion Act when it was brought down from 20 years to 10.

Arthur was good at handling the federal bureauocracy and very fancy, he renovated the White House.
Foreign Policy Choices:
-Dispatched three warships to Samoan waters to prevent Germany from installing a puppet monarchy
-Arbitrated a dispute between Britain and Venezuela

Cleveland opposed territorial expansion and entangling alliances so he moved with tact and delicacy.

Domestic Policy Choices:
-Repealed the Bland-Allison Silver Purchase Act of 1878
-Opposed efforts to protect African American suffrage, viewing it as a social problem

Cleveland focused on making the federal government more efficient by appointing officials based on merit and opposed African American suffrage.
Foreign Policy Choices:
-Convened the first Pan-Atlantic Conference in October of 1889
-Supported the expansion of the Navy

Harrison had an active foreign policy and was willing to go up against foreign nations to protect American interests.
Domestic Policy Choices:
-Supported the McKinley Tariff of 1890
-Supported the Sherman Anti-Trust Act and the Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890

Harrison passed several landmark bills and picked legislation that he could support.
Foreign Policy Choices:
-Fought and won the Spanish-American War over Cuba
-Stopped the Boxer Rebellion in China

McKinley led the U.S. through the Spanish-American War and into the Phillippine-American War.
Domestic Policy Choices:
-Supported the Dingley Tariff
-Signed the Gold Standard Act, formally placing U.S. money on the gold standard

McKinley supported gold-based currency and did little to improve race relations during his presidency.
Foreign Policy Choices:
-Established the Panama Canal
-Formulated the Roosevelt Corrolary

Roosevelt believed that a powerful navy was important and his diplomatic stance was to "speak softly and carry a big stick".
Domestic Policy Choices:
-Settled a coal strike with a "square deal"
-Created five national parks, eighteen national monuments, and fifty-one wild life refuges
Roosevelt believed that the governemnt should be able to regulate big business, made a "square deal" domestic policy, and was conservative.
Foreign Policy Choices:
-Pursued "dollar diplomacy"
-Invited U.S. banks to help Honduras with loans and grants

Taft's foreign policy was unsuccessful. He was known for not being aggressive enough.
Domestic Policy Choices:
-Passed the Mann-Elking Act of 1910
-Passed the 16th and 17th Amendments

Taft tried to live up to Roosevelt but was not successful although he did pass several important documents. He typically felt most comfortable executing the law
Foreign Policy Choices:
-Gave a "Fourteen Points" speech
-Appealed to Americans to stay neutral during WWI until April 4, 1917 when the U.S. sided with the Allies

Wilson guided the U.S. through WWI, staying neutral at first, then siding with the Allies and triumphing over the Central Powers
Domestic Policy Choices:
-Supported the Clayton Anti-Trust Act
-Paid off war debt with a new income tax and liberty loans

Wilson made the presedential position more powerful than Congress and made it through WWI with the U.S. still intact.
Foreign Policy Choices:
-Made loans to Germany to pay off war debt
-Reduced the size of the Navy

Harding gave his secretary of state, Charles Hughes, free reign in foreign affairs resulting in loans to Germany and a reduced Navy
Domestic Policy Choices:
-Supported the Johnson Immigrant Quota Act of 1921
-Supported efforts to reduce taxes for the rich
Harding likes saying yes to people and often seemed overwhelmed by his administration so he delegated tasks.
Foreign Policy Choices:
-Signed the Kellogg-Briand Pact
-Maintained a strong prescence to assert influence in Latin America

Domestic Policy Choices:
-Cut taxes with the Revenue Acts of 1924 and 1926
-Vetoed the McNary-Haugen Bill which would have helped farmers
Coolidge believed in expanding commercial interactions with other nations, keeping the Monroe Doctrine, and staying out of the League of Nations
Coolidge was conservative and wanted to sustain economic prosperity. He tried to balance the budget and cut the national debt.
Foreign Policy Choices:
-Worked to bring about international disarmament agreements
-Initiated the "Good Neighbor" Policy toward the South and Central American Nations

Hoover's foreign policies were impacted by the Great Depression but he tried toimprove relations and puch for disarmament.
Domestic Policy Choices:
-Signed the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Bill in June of 1930
-Rejected the demands of the Bonus Army and ended the riot with bloodshed

Hoover struggled to control then country during the Great Depression but did not succeed, it only got worse.
Foreign Policy Choices:
-Discreetly assisted Britain in WWII
-Entered WWII in December of 1941

Roosevelt tried to bring the U.S. out of the Great Depression and joined WWII.
Domestic Policy Choices:
-Sanctioned the relocation of Japanese-American citizens to prison camps
-Used "New Deal" programs to combat the depression

Roosevelt handled the Great Depression with "New Deal" programs and picked up the economy when the U.S. entered WWII.
Foreign Policy Choices:
-Dropped two nuclear bombs on Japan
-Worked to get the United Nations involved internationally

Domestic Policy Choices:
-Attempted to activate a "Fair Deal" policy
-Addressed the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) and declared his support for African American Civil Rights

Truman took over after Roosevelt's death and had a lot to live up to. He reorganized the White House, came up with a "Fair Deal" policy, and announced his support of African American Civil Rights.
Truman led the U.S. through the end of WWII, the beginning of the Cold War, and the start of the atomic age.
Foreign Policy Choices:
-Authorized the CIA to send top-secret flights over the Soviet Union for information
-Used the CIA to counter Communist expansion even by unsavory measures

Eisenhower used the CIA and military to combat other countries while participatin in the Cold War.
Domestic Policy Choices:
-Signed legislation to improve social security, minimum wage, and create the Departments of Health, Education, and Welfare
-Built the interstate highway

Eisenhower's presidential term was ahappy time for most citizens with a booming economy and no public wars.
Foreign Policy Choices:
-Ordered the CIA to send Cuban refugees to the Bay of Pigs, which resulted in disaster
-Secured an agreement with Great Britain and the Soviet Union to only test nuclear bombs in the atmosphere

Kennedy made a mistake with the Bay of Pigs, but for the most part his foreign exploits were successful.
Domestic Policy Choices:
-Enforced civil rights laws but did not make new ones
-Attempted to lower taxes, protect the unemployed, increase minimum wage, and focus on business and housing sectors to stimulate the community

Kennedy had to compromise his legislative program often because of Congress but he had a lot of helpful ideas.
Foreign Policy Choices:
-Entered the Vietnam War
-Signed the Outer Space Treaty which banned nuclear weapons in Earth orbit, on the moon, on other planets, or in deep space

Johnson's foreign policies were heavily influenced by the Vietnam War which the U.S. citizens did not approve of.
Domestic Policy Choices:
-Proposed the Voting Rights Act of 1965
-Spent billions of dollars to aid the poor

Johnson wanted to end poverty and racial injustice, succeeding somewhat in both endeavors.
Nixon was more interestes in foreign policy than domestic affairs and he ended the Cold War as well as U.S. participation in the Vietnam War.
Foreign Policy Choices:
-Ended U.S. participation in the Vietnam War
-Cut American aid to Chile

Domestic Policy Choices:
-Brought large increases to social security, Medicare, and Medicaid benefits
-Was involved in the Watergate Scandal

Nixon balanced budgets and brought down inflation in the U.S. before he resigned because of the Watergate Scandal.
Foreign Policy Choices:
-Offered only humanitarian aid for the Vietnam War
-Investigated the CIA for illicit activity

Ford supported improving relations with the Soviet Union and China as well as supporting South Vietnam.
Domestic Policy Choices:
-Granted Richard Nixon full pardon
-Did not take action to help segregation on buses

Ford was known to be very honest and open which was why he was elected after Nixon. He tried to steer the U.S. away from inflation and unemployment.
Foreign Policy Choices:
-Mediated issues between Egypt and Israel at Camp David
-Negotiated the release of hostages from Iran
Carter injected human rights considerations into foreign policy and wanted to improve relations between the Soviet Union and America.
Domestic Policy Choices:
-Pardoned Vietnam-era draft resisters, killed funding for the B-1 bomber airplane, and pushed for a comprehensive consumer-protection bill.
-Passed the Emergency Natural Gas Act

Carter disliked backroom dealing and wanted to reduce U.S. dependency on foreign sources.
Foreign Policy Choices:
-Authorized military force against Iraq
-Supported the "New World Order," breaking down Cold War alliances and using peaceful nations to stand united against rogue states

Bush wanted to unite the U.S. and he approached foreign affairs with his characteristic conservatism and pragmatism.
Domestic Policy Choices:
-Signed the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
-Supported the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990
Bush said at first that he wanted to help the homeless, reduce crime, and pass no taxes but he had to rescind upon his tax promise and focused more on paying back U.S. debt.
Foreign Policy Choices:
-Became involved in a civil war in Lebanon
-Was involved with the Iran-Contra Affair

Reagan said that the Soviet Union was intent on world domination and dealt with a lot of terrorists.
Domestic Policy Choices:
-Formulated an economic plan involving tax reductions and budget cuts
-Passed the Tax Reform Act of 1986
Reagan promised to cut taxes, curb government spending, and balance the federal budget or at least reduce the deficit
Foreign Policy Choices:
-Withdrew all troops from Somalia resulting in many deaths
-Repaired relations with the Soviet Union

Clinton had little experience in foreign affairs but he make some good agreements after the initial Somalia disaster
Domestic Policy Choices:
-Was almost impeached after the Lewinsky Affair
-Issued 140 presidential pardons at the very end of his term

Clinton promised to focus on unemployment, the runaway deficit, the health care crisis, and welfare reform but failed with the welfare.
Foreign Policy Choices:
-Decided to invade Iraq
-Thought that killing Saddam Hussein would destroy Al Qaeda; an incorrect theory

Bush attacked Iraq and pursued Suddam Hussein to try to destroy Al Qaeda but was unsuccessful.
Domestic Policy Choices:
-Instituted a tax cut estimated at $1.3 trillion to $1.4 trillion over 10 years
-Passed the No Child Left Behind Act

Bush kept the U.S. together through 9/11, reduced taxes, and took action towards helping children.
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