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Self Driving Cars

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by

lora weiss

on 6 October 2012

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Transcript of Self Driving Cars

Fully Autonomous
Pre-programmed route for initial path
On-board sensors for situational awareness
Perceived world coupled with own vehicle capabilities
Autonomy logic decides what actions to take
- change lanes, slow down, turn, avoid
- follow rules of road, but adapt in real-time for safety Google’s Self-Driving Car 7 test cars in fleet
over 300,000 miles driven
only occasional human control
drove down Lombard Street Sensing and Situational Awareness Map ahead of time where it plans to go (with 11 cm resolution)
Include any known infrastructure, e.g., traffic lights
Correlate with sensor data
Run tracking algorithms GPS + IMU
10 laser scanners - obstacle avoidance
6 video cameras - lane tracking
6 Doppler radars - traffic detection
8 networked computers
24v aux power system
safety control systems V2V and V2I

(vehicle-to- vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure)

or… (only engineers do this) Aug 2012
Connected Vehicle Safety Pilot Model Deployment Program 3000 vehicles
world's largest test of connected-vehicle communication technology
University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute
Partnership with US DoT Connected Vehicle Safety Pilot Model Deployment Program Goals
Determine how well wireless communications work in real world conditions
Determine the effectiveness of V2V and V2I systems in improving road safety “Vehicle-to-vehicle communication has the potential to be the ultimate game-changer in roadway safety – but we need to understand how to apply the technology in an effective way in the real world,”
- NHTSA Administrator David Strickland - 12 months

- Cars, commercial trucks, and transit vehicles
- 64 w/ embedded devices
- 300 w/ aftermarket safety devices
- Rest w/ simple transmission-only vehicle awareness devices

- Mix of traffic
- Variety of roadway types and characteristics
- Seasonal weather

- 73 lane miles of roadway
- 29 roadside-equipment installations for V2I

- Most vehicles supplied by volunteer participants
- GM is providing eight V2V-equipped Buick and
Cadillac cars Project SARTE – Safe Road Trains for the Environment Volvo Road Trains (May 2012) Volvo S60, V60, and a XC30. Each car was driven autonomously following a truck for 124 miles at a distance of 20 feet, and traveling at about 53 miles per hour on roads outside of Barcelona. - Road train traveled 120 miles autonomously in Spain

- Guided by a lead truck driven by a professional driver

- Autos communicate wirelessly via advanced software,
cameras, laser sensors, radar, and GPS-based technology

- Mimic the lead truck’s driving behavior

- If the driver turns, the following cars turn

- If the driver slows down, the following cars slow down

- All while maintaining  appropriate distance and speed 1 Oct 2012

Volvo signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the European Car-2-Car Communication consortium


Goal is shared technology for communication between cars and roadside infrastructure by 2016

where

Car-2-Car and Car-2-Object seek to provide information about road work, accidents, and events a along a car’s route “Incredibly fuel efficient thanks to the road train’s persistent drag reduction while along its route. Early estimates indicate as much as 20 percent more efficient when it comes to reducing fuel costs.”
– Digital Trends, May 2012 Getting there Starts with Driver Assistance Driver Assistance Introducing Increased Driver Assistance Technologies
- Take control of vehicle at low speeds (2011) In addition to
- Lane-keeping assist
- Adaptive cruise control
- Blind spot monitoring
- Rear view camera 9 of 10 drivers want assist technology, but fewer than half want self-driving cars* * Study commissioned by Ford and conducted by Penn Schoen Berland, 4 Sept 2012 > 2500 drivers
60% blame blind spots for accidents
40% afraid of parallel parking
~ 50% have fallen asleep behind wheel or
know someone who has
39% could be comfortable in an
autonomous vehicle - Inflate while driving
- Sense when pressure is low
- As tire rolls, it flattens a
tube that pushes air to
inlet valve
- Air flows into tire cavity BMW’s Smart Transmission
Predictive Power Management
Expected early 2013 on hybrid cars Linked to vehicle navigation system to predict which gear is needed for unseen
terrain
Account for
-- hill ascent and descent
-- radius of a corner
-- speed limits
Make gearing decision based on these inputs
Select gear to better suit road conditions
Ultimately increase vehicle’s fuel economy Ultimate Mobile Device = The Smart Car In-car Entertainment Options
Displays
USB Ports
BMW ConnectedDrive
-- integration of vehicle, driver
and environment
-- interaction between online
services, driver assistance,
and smartphones First Over-the-Air Software Patches (est. Oct 2012) - Must be parked to perform
the update
- Drivers can’t opt out
- Via embedded 3G in car or
WiFi at driver’s home Linux Foundation formed AGL
AGL = Automotive Grade Linux Workgroup
19 Sept 2012 “…facilitate widespread industry collaboration that advances automotive device development,
providing a community reference platform that companies can use for creating products.”

“…same connectivity in cars as what is today the norm in homes and offices.” Among the first carmakers to participate  Aug 2012 Summer camp to solve car-security challenges (sponsored by Battelle)
Car = mobile computer with potential security vulnerabilities

24 High School & College Kids
Automotive Engineers, IT Researches, and Gov’t Officials

Hack Away
-- (Legally) reverse engineer a car's systems to find potential problems 
-- Work alongside a forensics car company that helps law enforcement pull
information from vehicles Piecing this Together Driver accidents are the #1 cause of death for young drivers
-- Nearly all due to human error, not machine failure
-- Machines can help reduce human error

Could increase highway capacity by 2x-3x if we didn’t rely on human precision

Progressing from vehicle assist to more autonomy
-- Parallel parking
-- Collision avoidance
-- Adaptive cruise control
-- Automated breaking

Phased progression increases user confidence; people acclimate quickly

Increased autonomy enables support of wider range of ages and physical abilities Autonomous Car Laws Cyber - Big Concern California SB 1298 As amended, defines "autonomous technology," "autonomous vehicle," and "operator"; finds that the state "presently does not prohibit or specifically regulate the operation of autonomous vehicles"; requires rulemaking before 2015; permits current operation under certain conditions; imposes additional oversight on the operation of vehicles without a human in the driver's seat; and requires that the "manufacturer of the autonomous technology installed on a vehicle shall provide a written disclosure to the purchaser of an autonomous vehicle that describes what information is collected by the autonomous technology equipped on the vehicle." Recent amendment struck previous language stating "the intent of the Legislature that current law governing the conversion of vehicles originally manufactured by a third party shall control issues of liability arising from the operation of the autonomous vehicle if that vehicle was converted by an autonomous technology manufacturer." In Europe, from 2014 onward, all new cars must have Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB)

Use laser, radar, or video to sense impeding collision
Reduce front-end impacts, especially in heavy traffic
Sense pedestrians in roadway

European Commission Study
AEB reduced accidents by 27%
Significant decrease in congestion Driverless
vs.
Autonomous
vs.
Radio Controlled Georgia Tech's Sting Vehicle DARPA Urban Challenge Self-Regulating Tires (Sept 2012) V2X In Europe:

C2C and C2O

(car-to-car and car-to-object) Proliferation of the connected car will be a prime target for hackers Florida CS/HB 1207
As wholly amended, defines "autonomous technology" and "autonomous vehicle," "finds that the state does not prohibit or specifically regulate the testing or operation of autonomous technology in motor vehicles on public roads," specifies that "[a] person who possesses a valid driver license may operate an autonomous vehicle in autonomous mode," addresses liability of the original manufacturer of a vehicle on which a third party has installed autonomous technology, establishes certain conditions under which an autonomous vehicle may be tested, and directs state DHSMV to prepare specific report for the legislature.
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