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What did the lower classes of medieval japan do and what was their relationship with the higher classes?
Transcript of What did the lower classes of medieval japan do and what was their relationship with the higher classes?
do and what was their
relationship with the higher classes? Emperor (the figure head) Peasants, Farmers. ARTISANS The Shogun ( military leader ) MERCHANTS Feudal Japan In the Tokugawa era, farmers were looked at as the basis of Japan and got a social ranking below the samurai class. But the government made their lives torturous. To keep farmers working in the fields and away from urban places, government prohibited them to travel. Living unfairly conditions, the farmers were taxed to death. They grew rice then the currency, they were unable to keep much. Instead they ate millet, wheat and barley. In certain areas the poverty was so bad, after the birth of the first son, families killed off all subsequent male children. Girls were welcomed since they could be sold as slaves.
Farmers were only allowed to wear simple clothes—cotton kimonos, loin cloths and straw sandals. Rich farmers sometimes got to wear outer kimonos with designs. Artisans proved services in the early Tokugawa era where they serve in the Daimyo Castle. Around the Daimyo castle grew cities, then they became more prosperous and then the demand of arts and entertainment went higher.
A school of art in the Edo period was Ukiyo-e, which considers landscapes and and life in its centre. Ukiyo-e prints, albums, book illustrations and greeting cards made the famous Kabuki actors and brothel beauties popular. During the Edo period the merchant had a rise in social and economic status and had more influence. With increasing wealth Merchants were nearly at the rank of the Samurai. They have encouraged arts and prospered the men in Japan. Merchants were not allowed to wear silk. As time passed the Merchants started to adopt the styles of the Samurai. Japan was a Feudal System. It had Social and Political ladders, placing the most important at the top down to the least important. The emperor ( He was just a figure head ) was at the top, while the Merchants were down below. During the medieval period of Japan, Japan had a four tier system, with people living on top and below it. Actually although the emperor was at the top, the one with the real power was the Shogun
( will be explained ). WHAT DID THE LOWER CLASSES DO AND WHAT WERE THEIR RELATIONSHIPS WITH THE HIGHER CLASSES? Feudal pyramid of Japan. The warrior classes
Daimyo, Samurai, & Ronin The warrior classes are composed of three different clases. The Samurai, Daimyo and the Ronin. Although Ronin counts as a ype of Samurai w will still count them individually. RONIN:
The Ronin are the lowest among the warrior classes on the social ladder. They are like half Samurai, but the difference is, they are 'Daimyoless'. Ronin were sometimes rebellious and active. The term Ronin began to be used for Samurai who have made a mistake, their Daimyo died, or their bad deeds. In the mid-19th century many impoverished samurai were attracted to the movement to expel Western foreigners from the country and restore the old imperial family to their rightful place as the actual rulers of Japan. Large numbers of these samurai left their lords and became ronin. Samurai:
Samurai were the ultimate force in Japan in the medieval times. The Samurai starts their training from a young age. Samurai were very honourable and their warlords were the Daimyo. The Samurai followed a code named : Bushido. Bushido is a mix of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Shintoism. Bushido enhance 4 main things, Videlity, Politeness, Simplicity and Virility. The Samurai often purified themselves and they also sometimes committed the Honourable death: Seppuku. The Samurai were trained in battle and they were as deadly on ground as on horse back Edward! What are you doing! DAIMYO:
The Daimyo are the War lords they command a large army of Samurai each, and they control a broad area of land.
Before the unification, Japan was divided into many areas being ruled by the daimyo and military lords. For hundreds of years, daimyo armies were regularly at war. After the tokuguwa Shogunate came in power the Daimyo swore loyalty to them.
To keep the daimyo obedient, the third Tokugawa Shogun made "Sankin Kotai," which made the daimyo lords to live in Edo during part of every other year. To comply with the shogun's law, the daimyo traveled to Edo in costly trips. This made the Daimyo less rich and then they became more loyal
When not wearing battle armor, daimyo wore "eboshi" caps. The cap was held in place either by a white cord, or was pinned to the daimyo's topknot. One of the most important Ukiyo-e artists was Kitagawa Utamaro (1753 - 1806), known for his woodblock paintings of beautiful women in the entertainment area. Hokusai, (1760 - 1849) a designer of book covers and billboards, became famous for his landscapes pictures. His "Thirty-Six Views of Mt. Fuji" includes "The Wave" (as it is known in the West), one of the most widely known paintings in the world.
Ando Hiroshige (1797 -1858) made block painting more special. In 1832, Hiroshige traveled on the Tokaido Road, and got inspired. INSIGNIFICANT PEOPLE BELOW THE FOUR TIER SYSTEM:
COURTESAN The Feudal system of Europe. The emperors of Japan in the Medieval times did not have much power. The power slipped out of their hands at first when Tougawa Shogunate became a Shogun Since then the emperors were just figureheads, with no real power over their country. The reason why he lost power is he couldnt control the main state and the provinces at the same time, then the emperors lost alot of power. The Shogun eventually lost power in the 19th century. The Tokugawa Shogunate did not permit trade with foreign countries. Then the foreigners forced the Shogun to permit trade and that happened. But then the people of Japan thought it wasnt good to do that And also the Shogun did not ask the emperor permission. And then they noticed the emperor should have power so the shogun lost all his power. In pre-modern Japan Shoguns were the elite military leaders.
They were given the title by the emperor. They started the descent
from the minamoto clan. Through 1603 to 1869 Japan was ruled by
a series of Shoguns named Tokugawa Shogunate. The Shogun actually had the real power around, and they made buildings, war plans and engaged attacks, whil the Daimyo handle daily life. They just need to ask the permission from the emperor. Here are the rulers.
Tokugawa Ieyasu, 1603-1605
Tokugawa Hidetada, 1605-1623
Tokugawa Iemitsu, 1623-1651
Tokugawa Ietsuna, 1651-1680
Tokugawa Tsunayoshi, 1680-1709
Tokugawa Ienobu, 1709-1712
Tokugawa Ietsugu, 1713-1716
Tokugawa Yoshimune, 1716-1745
Tokugawa Ieshige, 1745-1760
Tokugawa Ieharu, 1760-1786
Tokugawa Ienari, 1787-1837
Tokugawa Ieyoshi, 1837-1853
Tokugawa Iesada, 1853-1858
Tokugawa Iemochi, 1858-1866
Tokugawa Yoshinobu, 1867 By Bruce XU, Edward LI & Matthew Ha The samurai and the higher classes depended on the peasants and merchants and other lower classes including farmers in order to live. The lower classes provided food, resources and weapons. If there were no lower classed people the samurai would crumble. without the lower classes they would starve, have no weapons and clothes to wear. The Daimyo and Shogun respect the lower classes as they have provided all the resources that they need. They know that if there were no lower classes they would lose all hope of living and keeping their warrior traditions. The lower classes consisted in the Merchants, Farmers, and Artisans. The Merchants traded and sold things for the samurai to have food and resources. The farmers gleaned the fields providing rice and other types of food to keep the warriors and leaders healthy and strong. Artisans provided service to people living in the castles of edo. If there were none of these people the samurai, daimyo and shogun would be part of a crumbling kingdom. Relationship of the lower class and the upper class