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Psychology Chapter 2
Transcript of Psychology Chapter 2
includes behavior, motives, thoughts, emotions The Big Five
(McRae and Costa) Openness to Experience
Your likelihood to be imaginative and adventurous or to be predictable and closed-minded
Your likelihood to be either dependable or unreliable
Extroversion versus Introversion
Your likelihood to be either outgoing or shy
Your likelihood to be either irritable or good-natured
Your likelihood to be either negative or positive The Biological Contribution:
How much of your personality is inherited? Temperaments: Physiological dispositions to respond to the environment in certain ways… in other words: personality traits that we are born with Heritability: A statistical estimate of the proportion of the total variance in some trait that is attributable to genetic differences among individuals within a group in other words: a measure of how likely it is that we will inherit a certain trait. Reasons for Caution Not all traits are equally heritable or unaffected by shared environment.
In other words: You can’t assume you inherit everything.
Some studies may underestimate the impact of the environment.
In other words: A good family and happy upbringing can overcome bad traits.
Even traits that are highly heritable are not rigidly fixed.
In other words: Even if you inherit it, you may be able to change it. Genetic predisposition does not imply inevitability.
(Just because you inherited the trait, you won’t necessarily become your parents!) http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/02/080215121214.htm http://blissfullydomestic.com/2009/fascinating-facts-about-twins Learning Perspective Behaviorism Rewards and punishments have created your personality Social-Cognitive Perspective J. Rotter: People’s feelings or beliefs about the forces that govern their behavior are as important as anything that actually happens to them. J. Rotter: People’s feelings or beliefs about the forces that govern their behavior are as important as anything that actually happens to them. Locus of control: A general expectation about whether things happen because your actions are under your control (internal) or beyond your control (external). 1 = Strongly Disagree
2 = Disagree Somewhat
3 = Slightly Disagree
4 = Slightly Agree
5 = Agree Somewhat
6 = Strongly Agree Expectations lead to behavior that makes a prediction come true.
Expecting to fail leads to behavior that guarantees failure. Self-fulfilling prophecy "I can't pass the test." "I'm not even going to bother studying because I can't pass." "Yep, I failed the test." "See, I told you I couldn't pass." Psychodynamic Perspective All psychodynamic theories have certain things in common: Emphasis on unconscious intrapsychic (within the mind) motives
Belief in the importance of early childhood
Belief that development occurs in fixed stages
Focus on fantasies and symbolic meanings of events
Reliance on subjective rather than objective methods Freud's structure of personality ID EGO SUPEREGO Operates according to the pleasure principle
- Primitive and unconscious part of personality Moral ideals and conscience Operates according to the reality principle
- Mediates between id and superego Video on Freud Freud's Psychosexual Stages of Development Oral (birth to 1 year old)
Anal (1 to 3 years old)
Phallic (3 to 6 years old)
Latency period (7 to 11 years old)
Genital (12 to 18 years old) Two Other Psychodynamic Approaches Jungian Theory (Carl Jung): A psychodynamic theory that includes the concepts of the collective unconscious (the universal memories of the species) and archetypes (universal symbolic images in myths, art, and dreams). Object Relations Theory: A psychodynamic approach that emphasizes the importance of the infant’s first two years of life and the baby’s formative relationships, especially with the mother. Problems with
Psychodynamic Theory? violates the principle of falsifiability concepts are drawn from a few atypical patients methods are not generally accepted
(hypnosis, regression therapy, etc.) Humanist Contribution Carl Rogers Abraham Maslow unconditional positive regard To become fully functioning people, we all need unconditional (no strings attached) love and support for the people that we are. hierarchy of needs http://quangkhoi.net/learningcenter A psychological approach that emphasizes personal growth and the achievement of human potential rather than the scientific understanding and assessment of behavior And that's what psychologists say about what makes you "you"! http://www.craftyjenny.com/images/clipart/star-smiley-face-download.gif