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Transcript of Progressivism
Andrew Jackson appointed his friends to cabinet
started system of giving jobs to friends
"Who you know..."
led to corruption Muckrackers: journalists, etc. who exposed corruption by drawing public attention to problems... this video explains them :) More examples of effective ways to fight corruption... Progressive Era: platform - set the stage for reform to take place later on
not enough time for progress to happen John D. Rockefeller
revolutionized the petroleum industry, but with a monopoly
used harsh business tactics
avoided laws against monopolies
paid workers little $
was targeted by muckrackers
The Rockefellers were known to have controlled politics Roosevelt's "Square Deal" which reduced inequality Power of business had corrupted politicians Differences: local, state, federal Pendleton Act (17th Amendment) established a federal civil service system Works Cited "Through the device of a trust, which held shares in each component company, Rockefeller was able to circumvent the laws which then prohibited a company in one state from owning shares in another; at the same time, he could and did pretend that all the companies were independent..."
Anthony Sampson. The Seven Sisters
The Northern Securities Case is an example of federal government stopping big business Daniel Drew & Jim Fisk were
both men who betrayed stockholders and corrupted legislatures to advance their interests, and gained riches and notoriety Businessmen discovered that they could gain larger profits by eliminating competitors Progressivism progressivism was a fight against corruption or by joining them in pooling agreements and vast consolidations. By 1890 twenty-four trusts had been organized.
The Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 was passed in order to prosecute "bad trusts,"
ban monopolistic practices, and put restraints on trade. so there were many ways of fighting corruption one of the most effective fighters of corruption were the muckrackers At the local level, many Progressives sought to suppress red-light districts, expand high schools, construct playgrounds, and replace corrupt urban political machines with more efficient system of municipal government.
At the state level, Progressives enacted minimum wage laws for women workers, instituted industrial accident insurance, restricted child labor, improved factory regulation, and created primary elections. At the federal level, Congress passed laws establishing federal regulation of the meat-packing, drug, and railroad industries, and strengthened anti-trust laws. It also lowered the tariff, established federal control over the banking system, and enacted legislation to improve working condition
the main problems were: political and economic The Adamson Act of 1916 mandated an 8 hour day for railroad workers But there were still other forms of corruption.. before we go any farther, here is a brief overview of progressivism corruption became an issue when... The Progressive Era was:
--Many efforts to make reforms without significantly altering the political and economic structure
--No organized movement, but separate efforts going on simultaneously Populists: demanded political reforms like initiative, referendum, and direct election of U.S. Senators Too many people with authority leads to badly divided responsibility! state & local reforms formed roots for federal reforms to take place
(all related) "No amount of intelligence and no amount of energy will save a nation which is not honest."
-Theodore Roosevelt Fun Fact:
Roosevelt & his Attorney General instituted 44 actions against trusts during his 7 years in office also economic problems in cities:
sweatshops, ghettos, poverty, disease, no labor laws
solution: labor unions social and political problems:
urbanization --> government could not provide housing, sanitation, fire protection, education, policing, and transportation Birth of Progressivism Optimistic about ability to reshape events to their liking
Willing to expand gov’t authority to advance their cause
Influenced by Protestant moralism, democracy, scientific expertise Q: What is progressivisim?
A: Reform impulse in response to industrialization Progressives were made up of mostly urban middle class reformers, but also supported by some business
farm, labor and immigrant groups Progressives were *modernizers* but the movement was about moderate and pragmatic reforms - NOT revolution Progressives were However, the number of trusts within a decade grew to 183.
This was the main reason for the passing of the
Clayton Anti-Trust Act in 1914: this executive branch agency was created to oversee and guide business practices, along with outlawing price-fixing. it all started with.... So looking back...
Woodrow Wilson and “New Freedom” (1913-1921) for example Prohibition ("cleansing") - alcohol was banned Passed in 1906, the Pure Food and Drug Act prohibited adulterated and falsely labeled food and drug products. 1914 Federal Reserve System: business-government partnership (banking laws and restrictions were created) The Hepburn Railroad Regulation Act was passed in 1906; it strengthened Interstate Commerce Commission’s power to regulate RR rates Federal Reserve Act of 1913 created Federal Reserve to regulate credit and money supply The Keating-Owen Child Labor Act, passed in 1916, banned child labor, but was struck down by Supreme Court in 1918 The Workers’ Compensation Act (1916) provided compensation to federal workers injured on the job the federal, state and local governments all took an active role in lessening corruption The Meat Inspection Act was also passed in 1906, and it provided for federal inspection of meat. Robert M. LaFollette "Fighting Bob" Charles Evans Hughes Herbert Hoover William Jennings Bryan Alfred Smith Important Leaders The Progressive Presidents Theodore Roosevelt and
“Square Deal”/”New Nationalism”
(1901-1909) William Howard Taft (1909-1913) Ganley, Albert C. The Progressive Movement: Traditional Reform. New York: Macmillan, 1964. Print.
Hofstadter, Richard. The Progressive Movement. Englewood Cliffs, n.j. 1963. Print.
Hyde, Thomas. Progressive Era; The Eleanor Fund. Sep 3, 2007. Web. 30 Nov. 2010.
“The Rockefeller Monopoly.” The New Enlightenment.
Hermes, May 2007. Web. 20 Nov. 2010.
Sage, Henry J. “The Progressive Era: The Great Age of Reform.” Academic American History. 19 June 2010. Web. 25 Nov. 2010.
“Short History – The Progressive Era.” Wisconsin Historical Society. 2010. Web. 28 Nov. 2010.