Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

dolgozat

No description
by

Monika Varga

on 14 May 2013

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of dolgozat

Developing Reading Skills Through Extensive Reading LUCRARE METODICO-ŞTIINŢIFICĂ
pentru obţinerea gradului didactic I
Dezvoltarea abilităţilor de citire prin intermediul lecturii ...RECONSTRUCTING READING..... Extensive Reading FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS... 3.2. *Conclusions…

“The response to reading is a tear or a laugh, a thought or a yawn! The
best response of all is to read another book.” (Ph. Prowse)

> the complementary association of engagement with proficiency
>(a way to successful learning) ~ a good working knowledge
> to be continued…

“We shouldn't teach great books; we should teach a love of reading”. (B.F. Skinner) Part 3. FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS 1.Covering a theme/topic > Package Tour, Maeve Binchy (expectations: title, storyline; vocabulary practice; creative writing tasks)

2. Descriptive paragraphs > poetry; fragments: Bleak House, Ch. Dickens; The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber, E. Hemingway (vocabulary discussions> discussing style/imagery; reading the whole story) ; Hills Like White Elephants, E. Hemingway ( personal interpretations, online activities, debate)

3. Narrative techniques> Springtime on the Menu, O. Henry (silent reading, audio book, writing techniques, cloze reading, listening skill practice and vocabulary)

ER dimension: accessible texts, silent reading activities, promoting genuine response, raising interest/curiosity; targeting communicative skills 2.4.2.1. ER experience in the 10th grade (‘case study’)
Implementation 1:
ER within opportunistic teaching moments


☻ER is a programme that would facilitate long-term learner engagement and attainment in both reading and language proficiency or vice versa;
☺ ER is a valuable aid in language exposure and in setting up reading as a foundational skill in a ‘lifelong learning’ context;
☻ ER practice supports reading fluency (~ as simultaneous ‘decoding and comprehension’) and largely contributes to the harnessing of reading literacy;
☺ for EFL, ER – greatly contributes to ‘acquisition’ leading to ‘automaticity’ = sign of language proficiency;
☻ the requirements of ER principles of promoting reading comfort zone, variety, choice and communicative classroom approach are clearly in favour of learner- centred quality classroom practice;
☺ER offers us a more coherent picture upon our learners’ reading and learning engagement - interest and attitude – and strains of the language learning process;
☻ the affective (motivation / engagement / positive attitude) and the cognitive (reading comprehension strategies / reading awareness – metacognition) variables are evidently foregrounded by ER
☺ ER addresses multiple competences and intelligences
☻ ER offers the possibility of constant gyration (advancing and returning if needed) between ‘learning to read’ and ‘reading to learn’, with all their implications (the process of reading, reading literacy issues etc) – thus functioning as a bridge across present-day gaps in reading theories and practices;
☺ER practice in EFL could set an example in language teaching - lack of an extensive reading programme unmistakably affects any ESL, EFL or L1 classroom and present-day ‘reading literacy’ issues ( language acquisition, skills, setting up reading targets);
☻ER indisputably promotes a reading culture (vs. some of our curricula, which set only a minimum number of reading requirements);
☺………………. if other ideas may occur, please complete………………… * Provisional implications. A brief ‘why-to- do- it’ checklist: The reasons:
to exploit our English classes/ 2 classes /week to the maximum;
consolidation of different strategies and skills (e.g. reading > reading rate > fluency > understanding > production / use);
enhanced interaction / learner participation (e.g. the decrease of ‘teacher talking time’ and the increase of ‘student talking time);
motivation for effective and efficient work (both class activities and homework assignment);
cultural sensitivity and/or learner autonomy within the EFL class; 2.4.1. The methodological perspective through ER experiments ‘the input hypothesis’ (Stephen Krashen (1985) apud Harmer, 2001: 71)=> ‘for students of a foreign language successful acquisition is bound up with the nature of the language input they receive’
>> COURSEBOOKS: ‘reading’= checking reading comprehension/retrieve information
>> ER: ‘reading’= interaction/ constructing meaning
? “Do we allow our students to read”, i.e. to create /construct / build meaning or “we insist on ‘our meaning’ (R. Day, 2010)”?
>> exposure => ‘acquisition’ <= READING: the more, the better

>> GRADED READERS 2.3. A suitable alternative? ER vs. IR ; [theoretical framework] […] children who are readers will develop at least acceptable levels of literacy.
Without a reading habit, children simply do not have a chance”
(Krashen, 2004: 149).
2. What is Extensive Reading?
“Anything we can do to make reading easier for them [i.e. students] must be a good idea.” (Jeremy Harmer)

2.1. What exactly is Extensive Reading? An overview
2.1.1. general presentation via the principles
2.1.2. ER vs. IR

2.2. Why try Extensive Reading?

2.3. A suitable alternative? Part 2. EXTENSIVE READING Bernhardt’s compensatory model of second language reading L1+L2 INFERENCES

Contrastive analysis;
Theory of interdependence;

The global concept of ‘cross-linguistic influence’ = as both conscious
and unconscious action of “applying features of a first language to the
learning of a new language” (Teaching Reading to English Language
Learners. Insights from Linguistics, 2010: 27) < Positive cross –
linguistic influence (PCI) vs. ‘interference’ […]aliteracy may be one of our most pressing literacy issues, because with reading, as with other abilities, its value lies not in its possession but in its use.’ (Mark Sadoski, 2004: 55-56) Expanded notion of READING LITERACY:

‘Reading literacy: An individual’s capacity to: understand, use, reflect on and engage with written texts, in order to achieve one’s goals, to develop one’s knowledge and potential, and to participate in society’. (OECD 2009, PISA 2009: 14)

=>showing two major modifications (in comparison with 2000):
1. the reading of electronic texts
2. the elaboration of the constructs of reading engagement and metacognition. […]aliteracy may be one of our most pressing literacy issues, because with reading, as with other abilities, its value lies not in its possession but in its use.’ (Mark Sadoski, 2004: 55-56) ‘Reading literacy’
‘Second language’ (L2=ESL+EFL)
L1+L2 interferences
Reading models
Awareness
An interactive perspective of ‘reading fluency’
Language and reading proficiency Key concepts: READING LITERACY within the international spectrum : a signpost of effectiveness (international surveys and studies/interpretations/reports, EU projects)


1. PIRLS surveys on reading skills: 2001, 2006, (2011):
! the highest % of very poor readers ( below Low Benchmark) was in Romania (~16%) vs. other European education systems;

2. PISA surveys on reading skills: 2000, 2009, (2012):
! one 15-year-old student in five has very low reading skills in the
EU-27 countries;
! the proportion of struggling readers < high in Romania (~ 40%) 1.1. The framework
“If a seed of lettuce will not grow, we do not blame the lettuce. Instead,
the fault lies with us for not having nourished the seed properly.”  
(Buddhist proverb) Part 1. RECONSTRUCTING READING
Part 2. EXTENSIVE READING

Part 3. FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS…

Appendices

Selected Bibliography Developing Reading Skills Through Extensive Reading 3.1. A brief ‘what-we-should-also-consider’ list :
■ sustaining motivation (engaging students in reading activities; overcoming preconceptions);
■ assessment (giving feedback, measuring progress and in our case: research validity, as well);
■ class management (the organization of in-class activities; the motivation for SSR/FVR as opposed to syllabus requirements; setting up a library loan system; organizing out-of-class reading and feedback sessions; overcoming preconceptions);
■ time management (time consuming activities (a reading programme should take up longer periods / months and school years/ cf. overcrowded syllabus both for learners and teachers as opposed to the ‘extensive’ dimension of this approach; monitoring);
■ planning and preparation (careful planning and repeated opportunities are vital);
■ expected results (the benefits do not always show in the immediate practice);
■ not to mention, budget (obtaining a sufficient number of books/copies), or
■ sustaining a reading culture (involving other teachers, parents and even institutions) are
taken into consideration and put under scrutiny=>The Moodle Reader (for established educational institutions; http://moodlereader.org/ ) Part 3. FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS CLASS DISCUSSIONS: T-charts; collecting overall impressions, voting the top 3/ (2 groups!); feedback session paragraphs; original versions of top 3 vs. graded reader version; discussions on historical/cultural aspects etc
ER: learners’ selections > The Story-Teller, Saki
Written feedback on this literary experience (essay)


Implementation 3: The Story of An Hour, K. Chopin: how we construct meaning, class activity



ENGAGEMENT WITH READING: comprehension/ reading fluency, reading strategies + genuine communication (attitude; belief/opinion, values), literary awareness; 2.4.2.1. ER experience in the 10th grade (‘case study’)
Implementations 2+ 3:
ER within the Reading Project ER: accessibility, variety, reading purpose, sustained reading practice +
brevity and density + learners preferences =>the collection British an American Short Stories, The Penguin Graded Readers / Level 5, (Pearson Education Ltd., 1997/2008)/ 1+8 short stories

8 weeks (January - March 2012), monitoring reading; collecting weekly feedback: on-line (audio book, on-line reading , activity sheets available / not compulsory)/ feedback on personal reading experience (not summaries); placement tests


LRQ (Miall and Kuiken) > learners’ expectations, reading habits and impediments / affective dimension+ personalised teaching/learning practices; SELF-REFLECTION
(likes/dislikes: 28/5-; proposals: 28/7 yes; literature for pleasure: no: 2; rarely: 6; sometimes: 7; often: 3; yes:11)
LRQ: insight (reflection), imagery vividness, leisure escape, story-driven reading 2.4.2.1. ER experience in the 10th grade (‘case study’)
Implementation 2:
ER within the Reading Project Reasons and objectives:
1. Questionnaire on reading habits: interest
Which of these is closest to the way you feel about reading?
A. I don’t enjoy it in any language.
B. I don’t mind reading in my language but it is too difficult/ boring etc. in English
C. I really enjoy it in my language, but I am not sure about reading in English.
D. I love reading and I don’t mind which language I read in.




2. Consciously preparing for an international language exam: motivation, exam
requirements (e.g. Reading Paper, Writing)
3. To engage/activate newly learnt structures/techniques
4. To recover on the occurrence of reading classes 2.4.2.1. ER experience in the 10th grade (‘case study’) The reasons:
(our undertaking of ER = in the hope of influencing reading/ learning practices, reading/language proficiency, reading culture)
desire to bring literature in the upper secondary EFL classroom: authenticity, cultural enrichment, language advancement => through ER approach: to promote and cultivate interest in literature + enhance personal (emotional awareness, critical thinking) and cultural growth; an attitudinal change; to cultivate the motivation to read and report affectively
Our approach: ‘integrated model’ (Savvidou, 2004): ‘the cultural model’+ ‘the language model’+ ‘personal growth model’( Carter and Long, 1991): <= in terms of their focus on the TEXT
Interaction: discussions of reading experiences and personal interpretations 2.4.2. The cultural perspective through ER experiments
“For sale: baby shoes, never worn.” ( E. Hemingway) Implementation 3 / Outcomes:
Using graded readers as integrated part of class syllabus: more natural encounter with language (eg. grammar)
Audio-book> improving reading speed
! Portfolio: chapter / task+ creative writing task (ending): different learner styles (respecting requirements; book reports and summaries not favoured; language matters: spelling); different reading strategies; research methods (sources: internet/books); encourage creativity (few students ventured: time management; lack of compulsory element; language issues etc)
amount of work and effort invested Implementation 3 / Procedure:
Relying on learners’ previous reading experiences in L1; methodological support (Penguin Readers)
In-class reading sessions: audio book version; pair and group summaries; comprehension exercises; silent reading moments; introducing and practicing language patterns
Extensive reading periods> last chapters not dealt with in class

‘Feedback’: task –based portfolio 2.4.1.1. ER experience in the 7th grade
Class reader :
Jules Verne’s Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea,
Penguin Readers, Level 1, (2005/2008) Implementation 1 / Outcomes
Learners’ attitude towards
compulsory reading assignments
(‘pleasure hypothesis’, Krashen)
Amount of reading varied
significantly( 4 -7 pp < 30-40 pp) = >
? assess performance? ( page=motivation;
language/difficulty, topic/interest etc)
READING AND TEACHING
AWARENESS (>vocabulary practice)

‘Comprehensible input’+ freedom to
choose: a book/day or even 5-6/3 weeks Implementation 1 / Procedure:
Reading diary (10 days/outside class and not as daily HW) (selection of books/ learners; learner’s decision: what and how much they read );(+vocabulary/ word bank; translation exercise of a fragment)





Class library (books available in class)(3 weeks) (summaries) 2.4.1.1. ER experience in the 7th grade
reading diary ; class library Outcomes:
A more sustained engagement with language patterns in a qualitatively different context
Recording newly acquired vocabulary items; frequency> ER principles respected
Editing the book: addressing different learner styles/intelligences
An enhancing learning context ( for learners showing reading and writing difficulties)
Stimulus for creativity
Post-reading ‘assessment’: reading comprehension; grammar and vocabulary areas; working memory; background knowledge; automatic language acquisition





A good learning habit/working style (cf. Implementation 2/ ER outside class)
‘initial test results’ vs. ‘final test results’ (6.60/8 vs. 7.82/1) CLASS READERS:
The Hat by John Escott, Penguin Active Reading, Easystarts, 2008;
A New Zealand Adventure by Jan Thorburn, Penguin Readers series, Easystarts, 2006/2008. How ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?


Weekly class activities dedicated to a
fragment (3 weeks)
(T. reading aloud; audio-book; reading
comprehension activities; language:
vocabulary or grammar; listening and
recounting: jumbled pictures / jumbled
fragments; ‘cloze’ reading; interactive
multimedia exercises etc)

ER dimension:
every week / HW / create the book version; a personal copy
similar picture clues: their own story Why? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

Consolidating learners’ active structural level (present simple)
Training in dealing with unknown words/guessing vocabulary
Control over reading process (weaker learners/stronger learners)
‘alternative experience’ shared by all
Developing listening skills (audio book version)
Longer/more sustained interaction with the material (vs. coursebook dialogues/texts)
Interactive CD-ROM/multimedia The Hat by John Escott,
Penguin Active Reading, Easystarts, 2008 Reasons and objectives:
skill development/curriculum requirements (4th/5th/6th grades)
teaching language in lower secondary classes (2 classes/week)
class management/’case study’ (varied learner types/learning ability, attention span, > reading: mechanical word processing/spotting + partial answers; problems with reading for gist, with unknown words;)


ER perspectives and objectives : CLASS READERS
The Hat by John Escott, Penguin Active Reading, Easystarts, 2008;
A New Zealand Adventure by Jan Thorburn, Penguin Readers series, Easystarts, 2006/2008. 2.4.1.1. ER experience in the 5th grade 1. The reading material is easy.
2. A variety of reading material on a wide range of topics is available.
3. Learners choose what they want to read.
4. Learners read as much as possible.
5. Reading speed is usually faster rather than slower.
6. The purpose of reading is usually related to pleasure, information and general understanding.
7. Reading is individual and silent.
8. Reading is its own reward.
9. The teacher orients and guides the students.
10. The teacher is a role model of a reader. 2.1.1.The principles; [theoretical framework] (Colin Davis ” Extensive reading: an expensive extravagance?”, 1995)
(Julian Bamford ;Richard R. Day; Stephen Krashen; Philip Prowse etc.)


The Extensive Reading Foundation (2011): Guide to Extensive Reading
‘When students read extensively they READ:
Read quickly and
Enjoyably with
Adequate comprehension so they
Don’t need a dictionary.’(2011: 1) 2.1. What is Extensive Reading?
“the best possible way for students to develop automaticity [...];”
(Harmer, 2001: 204) An interactive perspective of ‘READING FLUENCY’
NRP (2000): ~ as a key reading competency

= an ability enhancing the performance of multiple tasks:
word-recognition + comprehension => coding and decoding =>
automaticity => “a product of both knowledge of language and skill in processing language in written form => reading = a psycholinguistic process

! “second language readers often have problems with both processes” (Eskey,2005:568) […]aliteracy may be one of our most pressing literacy issues, because with reading, as with other abilities, its value lies not in its possession but in its use.’ (Mark Sadoski, 2004: 55-56) READING ENGAGEMENT

= implies the motivation to read
= to value and use reading for a variety of purposes
= a cluster of affective and behavioural characteristics: an interest in and enjoyment of reading, a sense of control over what one reads, involvement in the social dimension of reading, and diverse and frequent reading practices’. (ibid.: 24) […]aliteracy may be one of our most pressing literacy issues, because with reading, as with other abilities, its value lies not in its possession but in its use.’ (Mark Sadoski, 2004: 55-56) >> FACTORS associated with reading performance:
a. student characteristics and home environment (gender, parents’ educational and occupational level, immigrant, disadvantaged background<, approaches to reading and learning, reading and learning habits, strategy awareness, diversity of reading materials, engagement in reading activity);

b. teachers and schools (resources, location< teaching practices, tackling reading difficulties, promotion of reading: in and outside school)

c. educational systems (curricula, general restructuring practices, national policies) 1.1. The framework
“If a seed of lettuce will not grow, we do not blame the lettuce. Instead, the fault lies with us for not having nourished the seed properly.”   (Buddhist proverb) Why READING?

the complex literacy demands of our society: the changes in patterns of communication
> READING = A FOUNDATIONAL SKILL = as a “foundation for achievement in other subject areas within the educational system, but also as a prerequisite for successful participation in most areas of adult life” (qt. apud OECD 2009, PISA 2009: 21)

the cumulative evidence of classroom challenges (personal)


1.1. The framework

1.2. Restoring reading / theories and considerations Part 1. RECONSTRUCTING READING
“We shouldn't teach great books; we should teach a love of reading.” (B.F. Skinner) Developing Reading Skills Through Extensive Reading
Varga Mónika LUCRARE METODICO-ŞTIINŢIFICĂ
pentru obţinerea gradului didactic I
Dezvoltarea abilităţilor de citire prin intermediul lecturii































http://www.cfbt.com/lincs/secondary,special,education/rootedinreading.aspx

Thank you! Developing Reading Skills Through Extensive Reading ☻working with literary texts (abridged or original) can be an alternative for influencing our learners’ reading and learning practices, reading and language proficiency and, last but not least, their reading culture (reading ‘fluency’, language advancement, cultural values / enrichment , and personal growth);
☺ literary texts provide ‘an authentic model of language use’ as opposed to simple mechanic processing of language; genuine communication; interaction
☻ the interpretative procedures involved in reading literature are essentially similar to those involved in reading other types of discourse, if not even more complex, due to their implicit metacognitive processing; genuine response and critical thinking
☺ reader-response considerations aim at the setting up of the transactional relationship
between readers and text(s), by activating background knowledge (schemata and previous
L1 or L2 reading experiences), both bottom-up and top-down reading strategies (thus triggering reading practice), participation and emotional reactions;
☻ bringing ‘literature’ into the ESL/EFL classroom promotes a more personalised learning and teaching process; it enriched not only students’ learning experience, but also the teaching process;
☺’Extensive Reading’ practices indeed bridge the gap between literary texts and students; the process is cyclic
Literature ‘Learner Literature’ (cf. 2.3) Literature
☻they foreground the inclusive power of reading practices and reading habits
☺………………. if other ideas may occur, please complete………………… *Provisional implications. A brief ‘why-to- do- it’ checklist: Reading Experiences
The contribution of ER? Implementation 4 / Outcomes:




>21 students: personal growth


Content and creativity issues (genre and
scenarios; language); narrative techniques
(intuitively employed: characters/settings);
vocabulary issues; grammar concerns
(typical mistakes; L1 interference /+complex
structures); organisation; Implementation 4 / Procedure:
Penguin Readers’ Placement test/language ability/level > 60%> 2 sessions(13/16)



Reading period : spring holiday
Individual reading/outside class; audio book also provided; 3 stories/choice and preference

‘Progress test’/activities + creative writing task: own Sherlock Holmes story ================== 2.4.1.1. ER experience in the 7th grade
Extensive Reading: Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s Three Short Stories of Sherlock Holmes from the Penguin Readers series, 2005/2008, Level 2. Implementation 2 / Outcomes
means of consolidation / extensively used
suitable for any lesson sequence/familiarity with the text/topic
enhancing learner autonomy: creating activities: reading and vocabulary practices
exposure to target language culture
empathy: identifying with the characters (language learning difficulties and joys)

? time span?
? lack regular reading session? Implementation 2 / Procedure:
extra material for revision => extensive dimension (individual work) and also in-class ‘reading to learn’ purposes
elementary level, story in 22 chapters: clear focus of grammar and vocabulary; reading comprehension activities; speaking and writing tasks; on-line interactive version etc.)
ER: learners’ exercises/chapters covered 2.4.1.1. ER experience in the 7th grade
‘First Time in England’
the on-line text created by Ted Power
(retrieved from his English Language Learning and Teaching website) Reasons and objectives:
skill development/curriculum requirements (6th < 7th graders)
teaching language in lower secondary classes (2 classes/week; CEFR / A2=Basic Users)
class management/’case study’ (‘dynamic community’; initial test performance (EFL) ; learning styles/habits = questionnaires ( L1) on general reading/learning habits > reading pace; attitude to reading/learning etc.)






the issue of pleasure and comfort, i.e. 1. I feel comfortable and at ease when I read and study;
2. I read with pleasure, and I do not view it as a burden (transl. from Oroszlány, 2004: 142-144). 2.4.1.1. ER experience in the 7th grade
> viable and lasting means for covering the gaps + offering extra learning chances/practices ’The barriers to comprehension are not only linguistic (this is why graded readers control lexis and grammar) but also cultural (the schema – or assumed knowledge- of a novel written for native speakers does not often match that of the learners) and stylistic.’ (Prowse, ibid., 2010)
‘Of course, when it comes to language learners, we have to stress again the comprehensible input element[…]’( Sue Leather, 2011)


??: lack of authentic language input/real-world goals ER: ‘confusion between learning to read and reading to learn’
‘simplified’  E: providing ’comfort zone’( beginner/intermediate)


Graded readers= ‘learner literature’ (Day, Bamford, Harmer) (lexical and structural grading; accessibility; narrative cohesion and readability formulae) GRADED READERS ? The amount of reading = ‘extensive’
? Vocabulary gains
? A norm suitable for everybody/reluctance
? Indirect benefits









?
Solutions for methodological and cultural dilemmas: theory of reading: not only cognitive and linguistic skills but also the effects of motivational and cultural variables Language in its natural context
Building vocabulary patterns/sight vocabulary/word recognition
Reading speed and reading fluency= process the language automatically
Confidence, motivation, enjoyment and love of reading= lowering anxieties about language learning
Own ability level/Comprehensible Input
Grammatical patterns work in context
Learner autonomy
Enhance general language competence
Develop general/world knowledge

Language + Reading proficiency
Reading + Language proficiency 2.2. Why try EXTENSIVE READING?
‘The response to reading is a tear or a laugh, a thought or a yawn!
The best response of all is to read another book.’ (Philip Prowse) READING MODELS
“A good L2 reading model must encompass not only all languages on both L1 and L2 sides of the equation, but also learners of all ages and L1 literacy levels.” (Lems et al, 2010: 23)
> From the ‘dual-route’ perspective: coding and decoding
Clarke’s short-circuit hypothesis
Birch’s hypothetical model of reading process Language
knowledge and language processing strategies carry primordial influence
3. Bernhardt’s compensatory model of second language learning […]aliteracy may be one of our most pressing literacy issues, because with reading, as with other abilities, its value lies not in its possession but in its use.’ (Mark Sadoski, 2004: 55-56) 1. what we assume about ‘reading’;
2. learners’ knowledge and reading skills acquisition in L2;
? language proficiency reading proficiency ?
3. L1 influence on L2: degree of influence; reliance on L1 literacy advantage;

(A Tanulás Tanítása, Tanári kézikönyv, P. Oroszlány 2004: 139): Who is reading? 1.2. Restoring reading / theories and considerations ‘learn to read’ ‘read to learn’
‘being able to read’ ‘being a reader’
= emergent literacy >>> using reading skills to learn other skills
= interactive, constructive: “not only the processes and skills of reading comprehension, but also the uses of, and attitudes toward reading that characterise proficient readers.”

! besides the cognitive aspects (decoding and comprehension), an important factor behind differences in children’s reading achievement would be leisure-time reading and reading for pleasure.

! among different reading media, reading fiction shows the strongest association with reading performance: students who read fiction regularly score about half a proficiency level above the average” (PISA, ibid.: 97)

! pupils who never or almost never read stories or novels had the lowest achievement in most countries (PIRLS / Mullis et al. 2007, pp. 147-151 apud Eurydice, 2011: 119-120). 1.1. The framework
“If a seed of lettuce will not grow, we do not blame the lettuce. Instead, the fault lies with us for not having nourished the seed properly.”   (Buddhist proverb) 6. Which of these is closest to the way you feel about reading?
I don’t enjoy it in any language.
I don’t mind reading in my language but it is too difficult/ boring etc. in English
I really enjoy it in my language, but I am not sure about reading in English.
I love reading and I don’t mind which language I read in. Our own classroom realities:
Books - can’t live with them, can’t live without them? (Macmillan, 2006)
54/15: types of texts; frequency of reading for pleasure; types of books; peer influence; choice; reading in English: 1.1. The framework
“If a seed of lettuce will not grow, we do not blame the lettuce. Instead, the fault lies with us for not having nourished the seed properly.”   (Buddhist proverb) Intensive Reading a balanced perspective ; as ‘valid forms of reading’ ‘having different aims.’, yet complementary (ERF Guide, 2011: 2)




Extensive reading is regarded as ‘learning to read’ (the skill of reading; building reading fluency; consolidate language; sense of communicative functions; comprehension speed; overall fluency) and intensive reading is viewed as ‘reading to learn’ (study reading/ a reading skill ; about the language;). (ERF Guide, 2011: 2)


IR introduces new language items to the students, ER helps the students practice and get a deeper knowledge of them. The former is compared to “doing driving lessons at a school, the latter with actually driving on the road. Both are necessary.” (ERF Guide, 2011: 2) ER vs. IR ; [theoretical framework] Part 1. RECONSTRUCTING READING

Part 2. EXTENSIVE READING

Part 3. FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS…

Appendices
Selected Bibliography ‘the input hypothesis’ (Stephen Krashen (1985) apud Harmer, 2001: 71)=> ‘for students of a foreign language successful acquisition is bound up with the nature of the language input they receive’
>> COURSEBOOKS: ‘reading’= checking reading comprehension/retrieve information
>> ER: ‘reading’= interaction/ constructing meaning
? “Do we allow our students to read”, i.e. to create /construct / build meaning or “we insist on ‘our meaning’ (R. Day, 2010)”?
>> exposure => ‘acquisition’ <= READING: the more, the better

>> GRADED READERS 2.3. A suitable alternative? […] children who are readers will develop at least acceptable levels of literacy.
Without a reading habit, children simply do not have a chance”
(Krashen, 2004: 149).
2. What is Extensive Reading?
“Anything we can do to make reading easier for them [i.e. students] must be a good idea.” (Jeremy Harmer)

2.1. What exactly is Extensive Reading? An overview
2.1.1. general presentation via the principles
2.1.2. ER vs. IR

2.2. Why try Extensive Reading?

2.3. A suitable alternative? Part 2. EXTENSIVE READING ER vs. IR ; [theoretical framework] 1. The reading material is easy.
2. A variety of reading material on a wide range of topics is available.
3. Learners choose what they want to read.
4. Learners read as much as possible.
5. Reading speed is usually faster rather than slower.
6. The purpose of reading is usually related to pleasure, information and general understanding.
7. Reading is individual and silent.
8. Reading is its own reward.
9. The teacher orients and guides the students.
10. The teacher is a role model of a reader. 2.1.1.The principles; [theoretical framework] (Colin Davis ” Extensive reading: an expensive extravagance?”, 1995)
(Julian Bamford ;Richard R. Day; Stephen Krashen; Philip Prowse etc.)


The Extensive Reading Foundation (2011): Guide to Extensive Reading
‘When students read extensively they READ:
Read quickly and
Enjoyably with
Adequate comprehension so they
Don’t need a dictionary.’(2011: 1) 2.1. What is Extensive Reading?
“the best possible way for students to develop automaticity [...];”
(Harmer, 2001: 204) ’The barriers to comprehension are not only linguistic (this is why graded readers control lexis and grammar) but also cultural (the schema – or assumed knowledge- of a novel written for native speakers does not often match that of the learners) and stylistic.’ (Prowse, ibid., 2010)
‘Of course, when it comes to language learners, we have to stress again the comprehensible input element[…]’( Sue Leather, 2011)


??: lack of authentic language input/real-world goals ER: ‘confusion between learning to read and reading to learn’
‘simplified’  E: providing ’comfort zone’( beginner/intermediate)


Graded readers= ‘learner literature’ (Day, Bamford, Harmer) (lexical and structural grading; accessibility; narrative cohesion and readability formulae) GRADED READERS ? The amount of reading = ‘extensive’
? Vocabulary gains
? A norm suitable for everybody/reluctance
? Indirect benefits









?
Solutions for methodological and cultural dilemmas: theory of reading: not only cognitive and linguistic skills but also the effects of motivational and cultural variables Language in its natural context
Building vocabulary patterns/sight vocabulary/word recognition
Reading speed and reading fluency= process the language automatically
Confidence, motivation, enjoyment and love of reading= lowering anxieties about language learning
Own ability level/Comprehensible Input
Grammatical patterns work in context
Learner autonomy
Enhance general language competence
Develop general/world knowledge

Language + Reading proficiency
Reading + Language proficiency 2.2. Why try EXTENSIVE READING?
‘The response to reading is a tear or a laugh, a thought or a yawn!
The best response of all is to read another book.’ (Philip Prowse) Extensive Reading Intensive Reading a balanced perspective ; as ‘valid forms of reading’ ‘having different aims.’, yet complementary (ERF Guide, 2011: 2)




Extensive reading is regarded as ‘learning to read’ (the skill of reading; building reading fluency; consolidate language; sense of communicative functions; comprehension speed; overall fluency) and intensive reading is viewed as ‘reading to learn’ (study reading/ a reading skill ; about the language;). (ERF Guide, 2011: 2)


IR introduces new language items to the students, ER helps the students practice and get a deeper knowledge of them. The former is compared to “doing driving lessons at a school, the latter with actually driving on the road. Both are necessary.” (ERF Guide, 2011: 2) ER vs. IR ; [theoretical framework] […] children who are readers will develop at least acceptable levels of literacy.
Without a reading habit, children simply do not have a chance”
(Krashen, 2004: 149).
2. What is Extensive Reading?
“Anything we can do to make reading easier for them [i.e. students] must be a good idea.” (Jeremy Harmer)

2.1. What exactly is Extensive Reading? An overview
2.1.1. general presentation via the principles
2.1.2. ER vs. IR

2.2. Why try Extensive Reading?

2.3. A suitable alternative? Part 2. EXTENSIVE READING (Colin Davis ” Extensive reading: an expensive extravagance?”, 1995)
(Julian Bamford ;Richard R. Day; Stephen Krashen; Philip Prowse etc.)


The Extensive Reading Foundation (2011): Guide to Extensive Reading
‘When students read extensively they READ:
Read quickly and
Enjoyably with
Adequate comprehension so they
Don’t need a dictionary.’(2011: 1) 2.1. What is Extensive Reading?
“the best possible way for students to develop automaticity [...];”
(Harmer, 2001: 204) 1. The reading material is easy.
2. A variety of reading material on a wide range of topics is available.
3. Learners choose what they want to read.
4. Learners read as much as possible.
5. Reading speed is usually faster rather than slower.
6. The purpose of reading is usually related to pleasure, information and general understanding.
7. Reading is individual and silent.
8. Reading is its own reward.
9. The teacher orients and guides the students.
10. The teacher is a role model of a reader. 2.1.1.The principles; [theoretical framework] ER vs. IR ; [theoretical framework] Extensive Reading Intensive Reading a balanced perspective ; as ‘valid forms of reading’ ‘having different aims.’, yet complementary (ERF Guide, 2011: 2)




Extensive reading is regarded as ‘learning to read’ (the skill of reading; building reading fluency; consolidate language; sense of communicative functions; comprehension speed; overall fluency) and intensive reading is viewed as ‘reading to learn’ (study reading/ a reading skill ; about the language;). (ERF Guide, 2011: 2)


IR introduces new language items to the students, ER helps the students practice and get a deeper knowledge of them. The former is compared to “doing driving lessons at a school, the latter with actually driving on the road. Both are necessary.” (ERF Guide, 2011: 2) ER vs. IR ; [theoretical framework] 20 ? The amount of reading = ‘extensive’
? Vocabulary gains
? A norm suitable for everybody/reluctance
? Indirect benefits









?
Solutions for methodological and cultural dilemmas: theory of reading: not only cognitive and linguistic skills but also the effects of motivational and cultural variables Language in its natural context
Building vocabulary patterns/sight vocabulary/word recognition
Reading speed and reading fluency= process the language automatically
Confidence, motivation, enjoyment and love of reading= lowering anxieties about language learning
Own ability level/Comprehensible Input
Grammatical patterns work in context
Learner autonomy
Enhance general language competence
Develop general/world knowledge

Language + Reading proficiency
Reading + Language proficiency 2.2. Why try EXTENSIVE READING?
‘The response to reading is a tear or a laugh, a thought or a yawn!
The best response of all is to read another book.’ (Philip Prowse) ‘the input hypothesis’ (Stephen Krashen (1985) apud Harmer, 2001: 71)=> ‘for students of a foreign language successful acquisition is bound up with the nature of the language input they receive’
>> COURSEBOOKS: ‘reading’= checking reading comprehension/retrieve information
>> ER: ‘reading’= interaction/ constructing meaning
? “Do we allow our students to read”, i.e. to create /construct / build meaning or “we insist on ‘our meaning’ (R. Day, 2010)”?
>> exposure => ‘acquisition’ <= READING: the more, the better

>> GRADED READERS 2.3. A suitable alternative? 3.1. A brief ‘what-we-should-also-consider’ list :

sustaining motivation (engaging students in reading activities; overcoming preconceptions);

■assessment (giving feedback, measuring progress and in our case: research validity, as well);

class management (the organization of in-class activities; the motivation for SSR/FVR as opposed to syllabus requirements; setting up a library loan system; organizing out-of-class reading and feedback sessions; overcoming preconceptions);

time management (time consuming activities (a reading programme should take up longer periods / months and school years/ cf. overcrowded syllabus both for learners and teachers as opposed to the ‘extensive’ dimension of this approach; monitoring);

planning and preparation (careful planning and repeated opportunities are vital);

expected results (the benefits do not always show in the immediate practice);

not to mention, budget (obtaining a sufficient number of books/copies), or sustaining a reading culture (involving other teachers, parents and even institutions) are taken into consideration and put under scrutiny=>The Moodle Reader (for established educational institutions; http://moodlereader.org/ ) Part 3. FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS 1.Covering a THEME/topic > Package Tour, Maeve Binchy (expectations: title, storyline; vocabulary practice; creative writing tasks)

2. DESCRIPTIVE paragraphs > poetry; fragments: Bleak House, Ch. Dickens; The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber, E. Hemingway (vocabulary discussions> discussing style/imagery; reading the whole story) ; Hills Like White Elephants, E. Hemingway ( personal interpretations, online activities, debate)

3. NARRATIVE techniques> Springtime on the Menu, O. Henry (silent reading, audio book, writing techniques, cloze reading, listening skill practice and vocabulary)

ER dimension: accessible texts, silent reading activities, promoting genuine response, raising interest/CURIOSITY; targeting communicative skills 2.4.2.1. ER experience in the 10th grade (‘case study’)
Implementation 1:
ER within opportunistic teaching moments ☻ER is a programme that would facilitate LONG-TERM ENGAGEMENT and attainment in both reading and language proficiency or vice versa;
☺ ER is A VALUABLE AID IN LANGUAGE EXPOSURE and in setting up reading as a foundational skill in a ‘lifelong learning’ context;
☻ ER practice supports reading fluency (~ as simultaneous ‘decoding and comprehension’) and largely contributes to the harnessing of reading literacy;
☺ for EFL, ER – greatly contributes to ‘AQUISITION’ leading to ‘automaticity’ = sign of language proficiency;
☻ the requirements of ER principles of promoting READING COMFORT ZONE, variety, choice and communicative classroom approach are clearly in favour of learner- centred quality classroom practice;
ER offers us a more coherent picture upon our learners’ reading and learning engagement - interest and attitude – and strains of the language learning process;
the affective (motivation / engagement / positive attitude) and the cognitive (reading comprehension strategies / reading awareness – metacognition) variables are evidently foregrounded by ER
ER addresses multiple competences and intelligences
☻ ER offers the possibility of constant gyration (advancing and returning if needed) between ‘learning to read’ and ‘reading to learn’, with all their implications (the process of reading, reading literacy issues etc) – thus functioning as a bridge across present-day gaps in reading theories and practices;

☺ER practice in EFL could SET AN EXAMPLE IN LANGUAGE TEACHING - lack of an extensive reading programme unmistakably affects any ESL, EFL or L1 classroom and present-day ‘reading literacy’ issues ( language acquisition, skills, setting up reading targets);

ER indisputably promotes a READING CULTURE (vs. some of our curricula, which set only a minimum number of reading requirements);
☺………………. if other ideas may occur, please complete………………… * Provisional implications. A brief ‘why-to- do- it’ checklist: The reasons:
the exploitation of our English classes/ 2 classes /week to the maximum;
consolidation of different strategies and skills (e.g. READING > reading rate > fluency > understanding > PRODUCTION/ USE);
enhanced interaction / learner participation (e.g. the decrease of ‘teacher talking time’ and the increase of ‘student talking time');
motivation for effective and efficient work (both class activities and homework assignment);
cultural sensitivity and/or learner autonomy within the EFL class; 2.4.1. The methodological perspective through ER experiments 1. The reading material is easy.
2. A variety of reading material on a wide range of topics is available.
3. Learners choose what they want to read.
4. Learners read as much as possible.
5. Reading speed is usually faster rather than slower.
6. The purpose of reading is usually related to pleasure, information and general understanding.
7. Reading is individual and silent.
8. Reading is its own reward.
9. The teacher orients and guides the students.
10. The teacher is a role model of a reader. 2.1.1.The principles; [theoretical framework] the interactive perspective of ‘READING FLUENCY’
NRP (2000): ~ as a key reading competency

= an ability enhancing the performance of multiple tasks:
word-recognition + comprehension => coding and decoding => automaticity =>“a product of both knowledge of language and skill in processing language in written form => reading = a psycholinguistic process

! “second language readers often have problems with both processes” (Eskey,2005:568) "[…] aliteracy may be one of our most pressing literacy issues, because with reading, as with other abilities, its value lies not in its possession but in its use." (Mark Sadoski, 2004: 55-56) Why READING?
the cumulative evidence of classroom challenges (personal)
the complex literacy demands of our educational system:

READING = A FOUNDATIONAL SKILL = as a “foundation for achievement in other subject areas within the educational system, but also as a prerequisite for successful participation in most areas of adult life”
(qt. apud OECD 2009, PISA 2009: 21)

1.1. The framework:
READING LITERACY within the international spectrum:
PIRLS: 2001, 2006, (2011);
PISA: 2000, 2009, (2012)
(FACTORS associated with reading performance)

1.2. Restoring reading / theories and considerations Part 1. RECONSTRUCTING READING
“We shouldn't teach great books; we should teach a love of reading.” (B.F. Skinner) 3.2. *Conclusions…

“The response to reading is a tear or a laugh, a thought or a yawn!
The best response of all is to read another book.” (Ph. Prowse)

> the complementary association of engagement with proficiency
>(a way to successful learning) ~ a good working knowledge
> to be continued…

“We shouldn't teach great books; we should teach a love of reading”.
(B.F. Skinner) Part 3. FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS ☻working with literary texts (abridged or original) can be an alternative for influencing our learners’ reading and learning practices, reading and language proficiency and, last but not least, their reading culture
(reading ‘fluency’, language advancement, cultural values / enrichment , and personal growth);

literary texts provide ‘an authentic model of language use’ as opposed to simple mechanic processing of language; genuine communication; interaction

☻the interpretative procedures involved in reading literature are essentially similar to those involved in reading other types of discourse, if not even more complex, due to their implicit metacognitive processing; genuine response and critical thinking

reader-response considerations aim at the setting up of the transactional relationship between readers and text(s), by activating
background knowledge (schemata and previous L1 or L2 reading experiences), both bottom-up and top-down reading strategies (thus triggering reading practice), participation and emotional reactions;

bringing ‘literature’ into the ESL/EFL classroom promotes a more personalised learning and teaching process; it enriched not only students’ learning experience, but also the teaching process;

☺’Extensive Reading’ practices indeed bridge the gap between literary texts and students; the process is cyclic

LITERATURE > ‘LEARNER LITERATURE’ (cf. 2.3) > LITERATURE
< <

they foreground the inclusive power of reading practices and reading habits
☺………………. if other ideas may occur, please complete………………… *Provisional implications. A brief ‘why-to- do- it’ checklist: ER: accessibility, variety, reading purpose, sustained reading practice +
brevity and density + learners preferences =>the collection British an American Short Stories, The Penguin Graded Readers / Level 5, (Pearson Education Ltd., 1997/2008)/ 1+8 short stories





LRQ (Miall and Kuiken) > learners’ expectations, reading habits and impediments;
affective dimension+ personalised teaching/learning practices;

SELF-REFLECTION (likes/dislikes: 28/5-; proposals: 28/7 yes;
LRQ: insight (reflection), imagery vividness, leisure escape, story-driven reading 2.4.2.1. ER experience in the 10th grade (‘case study’)
Implementation 2:
ER within the Reading Project The reasons:
(our undertaking of ER = in the hope of influencing reading/ learning practices, reading/language proficiency, reading culture)
desire to bring literature in the upper secondary EFL classroom: authenticity, cultural enrichment, language advancement => through ER approach: to promote and cultivate interest in literature + enhance personal (emotional awareness, critical thinking) and cultural growth; an attitudinal change; to cultivate the motivation to read and report affectively
Our approach: ‘integrated model’ (Savvidou, 2004): ‘the cultural model’+ ‘the language model’+ ‘personal growth model’( Carter and Long, 1991): <= in terms of their focus on the TEXT
Interaction: discussions of reading experiences and personal interpretations 2.4.2. The cultural perspective through ER experiments
“For sale: baby shoes, never worn.” ( E. Hemingway) Reasons and objectives:
skill development/curriculum requirements (6th < 7th graders)
teaching language in lower secondary classes (2 classes/week; CEFR / A2=Basic Users)
class management/’case study’ (‘dynamic community’; initial test performance (EFL) ;
learning styles/habits = questionnaires ( L1) on general reading/learning habits > reading pace;
ATTITUDE TO READING/LEARNING etc.)






the issue of pleasure and comfort:
1. I feel comfortable and at ease when I read and study;
2. I read with pleasure, and I do not view it as a burden (transl. from Oroszlány, 2004: 142-144). 2.4.1.1. ER experience in the 7th grade
> viable and lasting means for covering the gaps + offering extra learning chances/practices Outcomes:
A more sustained engagement with language patterns in a qualitatively different context
Recording newly acquired vocabulary items; frequency> ER principles respected
EDITING the book: addressing different learner styles/intelligences
An enhancing learning context (for learners showing reading and writing difficulties)
Stimulus for creativity
Post-reading ‘assessment’: reading comprehension; grammar and vocabulary areas; working memory; background knowledge; automatic language acquisition





A good learning habit/working style (cf. Implementation 2/ ER outside class)
‘initial test results’ vs. ‘final test results’ (6.60/8 vs. 7.82/1) CLASS READERS:
1. The Hat by John Escott, Penguin Active Reading, Easystarts, 2008;
2. A New Zealand Adventure by Jan Thorburn, Penguin Readers series, Easystarts, 2006/2008. ? The amount of reading = ‘extensive’


? Vocabulary gains





? A norm suitable for everybody/reluctance
? Indirect benefits

? Solutions for methodological and cultural dilemmas> theory of reading: not only cognitive and linguistic skills but also the effects of motivational and cultural variables Language in its natural context:
Grammatical patterns work in context
Building vocabulary patterns/sight vocabulary/word recognition
Reading speed and reading fluency=
process the language automatically
Confidence, motivation, enjoyment and love of reading= lowering anxieties about language learning
Own ability level/Comprehensible Input
Learner autonomy
Enhance general language competence
Develop general/world knowledge

Language + Reading proficiency
Reading + Language proficiency 2.2. Why try EXTENSIVE READING?
‘The response to reading is a tear or a laugh, a thought or a yawn!
The best response of all is to read another book.’ (Philip Prowse) “[…] children who are readers will develop at least acceptable levels of literacy.
Without a reading habit, children simply do not have a chance.”(Krashen, 2004: 149).

2. What is Extensive Reading?
“Anything we can do to make reading easier for them [i.e. students] must be a good idea.” (Jeremy Harmer)

2.1. What exactly is Extensive Reading? An overview
2.1.1. general presentation via the principles
2.1.2. ER vs. IR

2.2. Why try Extensive Reading?

2.3. A suitable alternative? >GRADED READERS
Graded readers= ‘learner literature’ (Day, Bamford, Harmer)
(lexical and structural grading; accessibility; narrative cohesion and readability formulae)
ER: ‘reading’=comprehensible input in the form of reading>> interaction/ constructing meaning >> exposure/involvement = the more (ER) = the better => ‘acquisition’ Part 2. EXTENSIVE READING Bernhardt’s compensatory model of second language reading Key concepts: ‘Reading literacy’

‘Second language’ (L2=ESL+EFL)

L1+L2 interferences
Reading models
Strategy Awareness

An interactive perspective of ‘reading fluency’

Language and reading proficiency 1. what we assume about ‘reading’;
2. learners’ knowledge and reading skills acquisition in L2;
?language proficiency? ?reading proficiency ?
3. L1 influence on L2: degree of influence; reliance on L1 literacy advantage;


(A Tanulás Tanítása, Tanári kézikönyv, P. Oroszlány 2004: 139): Who is reading? 1.2. Restoring reading / theories and considerations Part 1. RECONSTRUCTING READING

Part 2. EXTENSIVE READING

Part 3. FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS…

Appendices

Selected Bibliography Developing READING SKILLS Through Our own classroom realities:
Books - can’t live with them, can’t live without them? (Macmillan, 2006):

54/15: types of texts; frequency of reading for pleasure; types of books; peer influence; choice; reading in English:

6. Which of these is closest to the way you feel about reading?
A. I don’t enjoy it in any language.
B. I don’t mind reading in my language but it is too difficult/ boring etc. in English
C. I really enjoy it in my language, but I am not sure about reading in English.
D. I love reading and I don’t mind which language I read in. 1.1. The framework





>21 students: personal growth


Content and creativity issues (genre and
scenarios; language); narrative techniques
(intuitively employed: characters/settings);
vocabulary issues; grammar concerns
(typical mistakes; L1 interference /+complex
structures); organisation; Implementation 4 / Procedure:
Penguin Readers’ Placement test/language ability/level > 60%> 2 sessions(13/16)


Reading period : spring holiday
Individual reading/outside class; audio book also provided; 3 stories/choice and preference

‘Progress test’/activities + CREATIVE WRITING TASK: 'own' Sherlock Holmes story ==================>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> 2.4.1.1. ER experience in the 7th grade
Extensive Reading: Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s Three Short Stories of Sherlock Holmes from the Penguin Readers series, 2005/2008, Level 2. Extensive reading Intensive reading AMOUNT
and
SELECTION Easy texts DIFFICULTY Fluent reading, increased reading speed Read for meaning in English No direct study of grammar
Fluency, skill forming
Develop sight vocabulary LINGUISTIC FOCUS Usually no comprehension questions COMPREHENSION No direct teaching of strategies Ignore unknown words Use dictionaries Difficult texts Word-for-word reading Translate into first language Focus on grammar use and rules
Analysis of the language Limited reading; text length limited/CB or teacher selection Reading a lot
(a book a week)
Learner selects

100% understanding

Overall understanding ER vs. IR ; [theoretical framework] what? why? how? Many specific comprehension questions Direct teaching of strategies Ignore unknown words Use dictionaries ? the methodological perspective: case study: 5th graders case study: 7th graders the cultural perspective: “If a seed of lettuce will not grow, we do not blame the lettuce. Instead, the fault lies with us for not having nourished the seed properly.”   (Buddhist proverb) case study: the 10th grade 8 weeks (January - March 2012), monitoring reading; collecting weekly feedback: on-line (audio book, on-line reading , activity sheets available / not compulsory)/ feedback on personal reading experience (not summaries); placement tests THANK YOU! EXTENSIVE READING
Full transcript