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MORPHOLOGY WORK

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Dennys Tenelanda López

on 24 April 2017

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Transcript of MORPHOLOGY WORK

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli
MORPHOLOGICAL PROCESSES TO EXPAND VOCABULARY
MORPHOLOGY WORK
Morphology analyzes the mininal parts of a word from a root.
number:
pencil pencil
s
(N) (N)
tense:
listen
ed
listen

listen
s
listen
ing
(V) (V)

same cathegory
Different cases
N
+
FUL
>
Adjective
(+)
use

ful

useful
SEE THIS VIDEO, AND THEN PRACTICE SOME EXERCISES
COMPOUNDS
SPELLING COMPOUNDS
INFLECTION
WORD FORMATION
?
?
INFLECTION
WORD FORMATION
creation of a new word
modification of a word to express different grammatical categories
addition of afixes or sufixes
N
+
LESS
>
Adjective
(-)
use

less

useless

UN
+
Adj
/pp
>
Adjective (-)

Un
known
>
unknown

Adjective
+
Ness

>

NOUN


happy

ness

>
happiness
Verb
+
ER
>
NOUN

play


er

player
Adj
+
EN
>
VERB
short
+
EN
>
shorten
NOUN
+
TY/Y
>
Adj

salt
y
>
salty
NOUN
+
SHIP
>

NOUN

friend
ship
>

friendship
Verb
+
MENT
>
NOUN
develop

ment

development
Adj
+
LY
>
VERB
bad


+
LY
>
badly
Nominal compounds
Neoclassical compounds
Forms in which lexeme of Latin or Greek origin are combined to form new combinations.
e.g.
Bio
chemistry,
bio
rhythm,
bio
graphy
Geol
ogy
, biol
ogy
, neurol
ogy
, philol
ogy
Photo
graph,
photo
analysis,
photo
voltaic
Verbal compounds
Verbal compounds have verbs as the head
Sometimes, it includes nouns, adjectives as non-heads
e.g.
Proof-read
Shortcut
Broadcast
Stir-fry
Dry-clean
Adjectival compounds
process of word formation that creates compound lexemes
It refers to the difficult to spell some words. They can be spelled as one word, two words, or hyphenated
Solid compounds

anyone
anytime
anywhere
Hyphenated compounds
check-in
child-care (as an adjective)
father-in-law
Spaced words
every time
after all
health care
Kinds of compunds
Compound with nouns as head (though involve verbs and adjectives as non-heads)
Noun-noun compounds are the most common type of compound in English
Two types of nominal compounds:

Endocentric compounds
The semantic head of these compounds is inside the compound.
Laser printer (it’s a kind of printer)
Book cover (it’s a kind of cover)

Exocentric compounds
The semantic head is outside the compound
Redneck (it’s a kind of person)
Loudmouth (it doesn’t denote a kind of mouth)
Compound with adjectives as head
It can have nouns or adjectives, but as non-heads
e.g.
Capital-intensive
Knee-deep
Girl-crazy
Class-conscious
Sugar-free
The head of compounds
Endocentric compounds

Compounds without heads
Exocentric compounds
The structure of compounds
They are formed by two or more free morphemens
e.g.
mother-in-law
check out
productivity
IT'S RELATED TO HOW MUCH SCOPE WE HAVE TO CREATE NEW COMPLEX WORDS OF PARTICULAR TYPE.

No possible creation=> blocking
Examples: warmth, coolth, thief , etc.
th and ness both form noun from adjecives.
semiproductive : negation with dis and in. example
innumerate, intimidation, disproposal, dismouth.
semi- productive : negation with non and un. Example.
unclear, unalianable, non-action, non-toxic. etc.
semi- productive: negations with a. Example.
apolitical, anormal, asocial.
Productive : Old words related to latin and animated beings. Example: faith, care, peace
EXCEPTION IN COMPOUNDING
One word not two
Hot chocolate
“Exocentric compounding”
Mental hospital ladybird
Phrasal verbs
blow up break in get up
Idioms
Bad-mouth blabbermouth far-fetched
Word Formation Processes
It consist on the building of new word by these various methods that we have are known as word formation.

Inflection: It is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such person, number gender, etc.
[x]N =>[x+[s]]N
Table=> tables
Derivation : It is the process of forming a new word on the basis of an existing word changing the lexical category.
[x]V =>[x+[er]]N [x]A =>[x+[ness]]N

Keep=> keeper happy=> happiness
Word Formation Processes
To analyze the structure consist on to divide words into morphological constituents.

E.g.: en+able+ed
un+system+atic+al
ANALYSIS OF THE INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF WORDS
Conversion: It’s the process by which lexical items are made members of another word class without the visible addition of a suffix or prefix.
XN=> X=V
The paper is white . The kid papers his gifts.
XA => XV

The pencil is yellow. Bananas yellow with time.
Word Formation Processes
Compounding: It is the process of word formation that creates compound lexemes, that consists of more than one stem compounding occurs when two or more words are joined together to make them one word. The meaning of the compound may be very different from the meanings of its components in isolation.


[X]N+ [Y]N =>[X+Y]N

X= Boat, Y=house => boathouse

[X]N+ [Y]v=> [x+[Y+er]]N

Book+keep Bookkeeper
Word Formation Processes
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