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on 12 November 2013

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Masques, Dance, Music
• Dancing was one of the prime accomplishments of any lady or gentleman
• Many noble houses had a dancing master to teach how to do the steps properly
• People of leisure took dance lessons because dancing was the most prized of all
• 2 types that they learned
o Basse (slow steps, low to the ground)
o Haute (lively jumps and turns, high off the ground)

The fourteenth to the seventeenth period is known as the Renaissance period.
Two major theater design traditions were developed at this time in Italy: the proscenium arch and the commedia dell’ arte, which means comedy of the profession.
The actors wore masks to portray a regular cast of characters and made up their lines as they went along. The daughters and wives of the players were some of the first women to perform in theater.
Feasts & Banquets
• Soups
o Made of various colors, sweetened with sugar, and sprinkled with pomegranate seeds and aromatic herbs, such as marjoram, sage, thyme, sweet basil, and savory
• Roasts
o Sirloin of beef were one of the most common
o First boiled, then thoroughly basted with orange juice and rose-water, and covered with sugar and powdered spices
• Salads
o Contained several mixtures, such as cooked vegetables, and the crests, livers, or brains of poultry

Blood Sports (Animal Sports)
Definition: A sport involving bloodshed, such as cockfighting; any sport involving the killing of an animal, especially hunting
During the Renaissance, hunting was the most noble of the blood sports, and it remained the chief amusement of Europe’s noble classes throughout the Renaissance.
Aristocrats argue that hunting was excellent training for war because it tested horsemanship, their skill with weapons, and their knowledge of the land.

• Jesters were in aristocrat households and had a jester or fool license.
• They wore a colorful coat, hood with donkey ears or coxcomb and bells.
• Masters treated jesters as pets or mascots, and they served to amuse and criticize master, mistress, or guests.

Jesters & Fools
History of fencing started in ancient Egypt times (barbaric Dark Ages) -->then to the elegent Renaissance--> modern popular fencing of today
Fencing 1st came to American in the 1860s-1870s by immigrant fencing master
By this time, fencing was considered a non-harmful sport

• Not all were lucky enough to have royal masters; Most Jesters performed in the marketplace or town square. They used simple stages and carpets to attract an audience.
• They used attention grabbing techniques and gathered curious bystanders.
• Doctors believed that human health was controlled by forces called “humours” and they believed that the emotional states could be rebalanced by jesters.

In England, Queen Elizabeth I strongly supported the theater.
During Elizabethan times, the most famous playwright in history began his career. Born in 1564, William Shakespeare was an actor and poet, who wrote plays for his company, the Lord Chamberlain’s Men, to perform. Many of his plays, such as “Romeo and Juliet,” “Hamlet,” and “A Midsummer Night's Dream,” are still studied and performed all over the world today.
Permanent Theater's
The establishment of large and profitable public theatres was an essential enabling factor in the success of English Renaissance drama. Once they were in operation, drama could become a fixed and permanent rather than a transitory phenomenon. The public theatres were three stories high, and built around an open space at the center. The three levels of inward-facing galleries overlooked the open center, into which jutted the stage. Only the rear being restricted for the entrances and exits of the actors and seating for the musicians. The upper level behind the stage would be used as a balcony.
Capacity- On a good day, the total theater capacity of London was about 5000 spectators.
Pricing- the poorest citizens could purchase admittance for a penny at public theaters. At private theaters, prices were five to six times higher.
Bull Baiting
many communities would legally require butchers to bait their bulls before slaughter, in the interest of public health because it would warm the bull and make its meat more tender and palatable. In a bull baiting, a bull was tethered by around twelve feet of rope or chain to an iron ring set in the ground. Bull dogs were then set upon the bull: the dogs would crouch low to the ground and approach the bull. The bull would try to hook a dog under its horns and toss the animal high into the air (its owner would attempt to catch it in order to save it from more serious harm). If a dog evaded the horns, it would seize the bull by its throat, nose, or dewlap and hang on for dear life until it finally tore out a part of the bull’s face or throat or was shaken free by the bull’s bucks and twists. Sometimes the dogs would kill the bull, but more often they would just maim it and “warm” it enough for slaughter and safe consumption.
Cruelty of Animals
It seems like the whole point of blood sports is basically animal cruelty. Most people in Renaissance Europe did not think blood sports cruel at all. They regarded animals as soulless creatures that God created exclusively for the benefit of people. The notion of cruelty did not apply to animals. People were accustomed to the sight of bloodshed as well as the sight of animals being butchered for food or for sport.
Basically was about dueling
Dueling didn't die out until the end of WWI
Majority of fencers were not warriors
Their style emphasized SPEED and MOBILITY
Fencing is more than a sport; it is an art form, an ancient symbol of POWER and CLORY
In movies: Zorro and The Princess Bride
Awesome fencing video
1. Saber
2. Foil
3. Epee
3 types of weapons
Picture of Renaissance Jester
Renaissance Dance
• Renaissance court dances were popular
• Court entertainments were showy pageants that contained the vague overview of ballet displays but with limited dancing
o The most talented courtiers would be in the show which contained a musical introduction and special effects

• Qualifications of a good dancer:
o Rhythm
o Lightness
o Use of space
o Expression

Renaissance Music

• Music was an essential part of life during the Renaissance
• Most important music of the early Renaissance was composed by the use of the Church and court chapels

• Cheese
• Pastas
o Semolina, vermicelli, and macaroni
• Pastries
• Seasonings
o Verjuice (green juice)
 Formed the essentialbasis of sauces
• Side-dishes
o Consisted mainly in a high variety of pastry
 Covered pastry
 Bourbonnais pastry
 Double-faced pastry
 Pear pastry
 Apple pastry
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