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L&A Iconic Leaders
Transcript of L&A Iconic Leaders
Woman or Man
Cleopatra 69-30 BC
Alexander the Great 356 - 323 BC
Ivan the Terrible 1530-1584
King of Macedonia
Pharaoh of Egypt
Empress and Autocrat
of all the Russias
Tzar of All Russia
Josef Stalin 1878-1953
Premier of the Soviet Union
Fuhrer of Germany
Adolf Hitler 1889-1945
Gaius Julius Ceasar
100 - 44 BC
Dictator of the
Plato 428-337 BC
Aristotle 384-322 BC
1920s [Leadership is] the ability to impress the will of the leader on those led and induce obedience, respect, loyalty, and cooperation.
1930s Leadership is a process in which the activities of many are organized to
move in a specific direction by one.
1940s Leadership is the result of an ability to persuade or direct men, apart from
the prestige or power that comes from office or external circumstance.
1950s [Leadership is what leaders do in groups.] The leader’s authority is spontaneously
accorded him by his fellow group members.
1960s [Leadership is] acts by a person which influence other persons in a shared
1980s Regardless of the complexities involved in the study of leadership, its
meaning is relatively simple. Leadership means to inspire others to undertake
some form of purposeful action as determined by the leader.
1970s Leadership is defined in terms of discretionary influence.
Discretionary influence refers to those leader behaviors under control of the leader which s/he may vary from individual to individual.
1990s Leadership is an influence relationship between leaders and followers who intend real changes that reflect their mutual
In a city of good men, if it came into being, the citizens would fight in order not to rule . . .
There it would be clear that anyone who is really a true ruler does not by nature seek his own advantage but that of his subjects.
And everyone, knowing this, would rather be benefited by others than take the trouble
to benefit them.
Plato believed that leadership required a person to sacrifice his or her immediate
self-interests, but this did not amount to altruism. In Book II of the Republic, Plato wrote,
Rather than requiring altruistic motives, Plato was referring to the stress, hard work, and the sometimes thankless task of being a morally good leader.
He implied that if you are a just person, leadership will take a toll on you and your life.
The only reason a just person will take on a leadership role is out of fear of punishment.
“Now the greatest punishment, if one isn’t willing to rule, is to be ruled by someone worse than oneself. And I think it is fear of this that makes decent people rule when they do” (Plato)
He argued that it is in our best interest to be just, because just people are happier and lead better
lives than do unjust people (Plato, 1992, p. 353e).
Benito Mussolini (Italy)
Premier Vladimir Lenin (Russia) later (Soviet Union)
Premier Joseph Stalin
Führer Adolf Hitler
President Franklin D. Roosevelt (United States)
General Dwight D.Eisenhower
Prime Minister Winston Churchill
Francisco Franco (Spain)
Chairman Mao Zedong
(People's Republic of China)
President John F. Kennedy
Martin Luther King Jr.
President Ronald Reagan
He who has never learned to obey
cannot be a good commander.
Gandhi's leadership style could be termed as
'follower-centric' and one that took into account existing conditions before determining the strategy.
Gandhi ji advocated having leadership styles that were dependent on the circumstances. When Gandhi was in South Africa, he launched his protests in a suit and a tie.
When he returned to India, he preached
khadi and launched non-violent protests on a greater scale,
Gandhi Ji utilized a situational leadership style.
The Khadi movement aimed at boycotting foreign goods and promoting Indian goods, thereby improving India's economy.
Not just a cloth.
The meaning of grozny is closer to the original usage of terrible—inspiring fear or terror, dangerous (as in Old English in one's danger), formidable or threatening.
Frederick the Great's Masterpiece: The Battle of Leuthen
Catherine completed the conquest of the south. Catherine made Russia the dominant power in south-eastern Europe after her first Russo-Turkish War against the Ottoman Empire (1768–74), which saw some of the heaviest defeats in Turkish history, including the Battle of Chesma (5–7 July 1770) and the Battle of Kagul (21 July 1770).
Norman Bowie on Emmanual Kant
Immanuel Kant 1724-1804
The master for Kant (1983) is morality. No individual or leader has the key to morality, and hence, everyone is responsible for defining
and enforcing morality.
Kant's advice for leaders:
“No, you aren't special”
What is leadership?
The other is about what leadership ought to be, or a normative
Power and/or Influence
What is good leadership?
One is about what leadership is,
or a descriptive question.
Prime Minister of Britian
4 May 1979 – 28 November 1990
Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher
Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau (Canada)
President Richard Nixon (United States)
Chairman Mao 1893-1976
End of the Western Roman Empire 476 AD
Hero King of Sparta
Leonidas I -480 BC
Why Being Leader Is Not in a
2500 BC - 250 AD
Pre Classical Leadership
Concerned with Spirituality
Death was Feared
Kings and Queens
..As for the best leaders, the people
do not notice their existence.
The next best, the people honour and praise. The next the people fear; and the next, the people hate...When the best leader's work is done the people say, 'WE DID IT OURSELVES!'
LAO TZU 640 BC
Era of great political upheaval
Strong Governmnet and Authority and a set of laws to maintain order
Social Contract (Laws of Nature)
1632 - 1704
The leader as moderator
and protector of rights
Is it better
Leader of the Protestant Reformation
Warned against abuse of power by Papal Authorities
St. Thomas Aquinas
Leadership was hierarchical with God at the top.
New view of leaders as an extension of God.
King was a role model to his subjects embodying the highest standards cultivating virtue in his subjects.
The leader as harmonizer of people
The leader as improver of those they lead
The leader as an individual of rare intellectual qualities
The leader as possessor of wisdom
The Golden Age of Greece
The age of Pericles
Aristocracy gives way to Democracy
Problems of morality and politics are central
Plato's concept of the Ideal City gives rise to the Ideal leader.
Tribal to Contemporary
Tribal - The Leader as the most powerful
The Greeks - The leader as Harmonizer and Teacher
Thomas Aquinas - The Leader as Provider of Resources and Guide to Others
Hobbes and Locke - The Leader as Mediator of Individual Self-Interest
Kant - The Leader as Master of Morality
Role of coordinator and skilled expert
Directive and task-oriented
Leaders were "elected" based on size, strength, and agility
Leadership based on fear
- A Mali Epic
Frederick the Great 1712-1786
King of Prussia
Emperor of France
A leader is a dealer in hope.
Napolean Bonaparte 1769 - 1821
George W. Bush
Catherine the Great of Russia
George HW Bush
General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev
William J. Clinton
Age of Oil
Martin Luther King Jr.
Dwight D Eisenhower
Leadership: The art of getting someone else to do something you want done because he wants to do it.
2010s leadership barricades and seeks shelter from the masses.
May 21st, 1965