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An Edible History of Humanity Timeline
Transcript of An Edible History of Humanity Timeline
Columbus discovered Maize in Cuba and brought back maize samples to Europe.
Region: Europe Second Century (101-200 B.C.E)
New trade routes connecting China with he Eastern Mediterranean allowed for the easy trade of spices such as licorice, musk, and rhubarb.
Regions: Europe & China Between 132 & 142
Islam spread through new trade routes established by spices to countries including Palestine, Syria, Egypt, etc.
Region: Middle East 1347
The Black Plague spread throughout the Mediterranean basin as a result of spice imports from foreign countries. This plague killed over one-third of Europe's population in 6 years.
Region: Europe November 6,1942
Christopher Colombus sails from Spain in hope to bring back spices from the Indies. 1519
A Portuguese navigator, Ferdinand Magellan, set out westward from Spain on a search for spices. Although he was killed in 1519, his crew, now captained by Juan Elcano, his mission was successful as they discovered spices in Moluccas. They collected cloves, cinnoman sticks, and nutmeg.
Region: Europe (Spain) 1700
The price of spices fell and became more reasonable once people were told myths about their worldly provenance. 1804
Nicholas Appert invented canned foods which helped food stay fresh for long periods of time. At the time, he used glass containters to store the food. It wasn't until a few years that they started using cans. 1860
Louis Pasteut, a chemist, discovered that the food in canned food stayed fresh because the heat that was applied to it killed microbes. 1809
Word of canned food had reached the French government and they invited Appert to demonstrate his process for making canned food. He was given twelve thousand francs in exchange for spreading his idea throughout France.
Region: France 1860
Can openers were invented and made eating from canned food even easier than before. 1810
Bryan Donkin, an engineer in England got a patent for selling preserved food in tin cans. This was easier than the glass containers Appert had used.
Region: Europe 1861
American soldiers used canned foods during the American Civil War. These preserved cans of milk, vegetables, and meat were easily moved around with soldiers.
Region: America 1493
Columbus discovered Sugar in the Americas and took it back to Hispaniola. 1440
To increase sugar production, the Portuguese brought in slaves from Africa to work on sugar plantations.
Region: Africa 1460
Madeira became the world's largest sugar producer. 1503
The world's first sugar mill opened in Hispaniola. End of 18th Cenury (1701-1800)
As a result of increased production, sugar became a common item and it's European price fell. It became a common household item used for tea.
Region: Europe Beginning of 18th Century (1701-1800)
Rum, produced from sugar, was responsible for 80% of New England's exports. 1600
Potatoes, which were introduced to Europeans by Spanish conquistadors in the late 1530's, were starting to be grown in Europe. However, due to their irregular shape, they were not very popular.
Region: Europe 1709
After a series of famines in the world due to crop failures, people were forced to eat potatoes. Governments began to promote potatoes to help people survive. 1757-1763
During the Seven Year's War, soldiers from Austria, France, and Russia noticed how the local populations survived off of potatoes so they began to try them. Potatoes were safe during wartime because they were hidden underground and wouldn't become damaged.
Region: Europe 1840
The population of Ireland increased from around 500,000 to 9 million in 180 years as a result of surplus food supplies from potatoes.
Region: Ireland 1845
The potato crops failed in Ireland. People faced starvation and began getting diseases. Around one million people died due to starvation because of these crop failures. 1970
Rice production in Asia almost doubled. As a result, the price of rice fell.
Region: Asia January 2007 - April 2008
Rice prices tripled around the globe along with wheat and maize which caused food riots to outbreak around the globe. 1939-1942
Stem Rust, a plant disease, decreased Mexico's wheat harvest by one half. 1962
Norman Borlaug, an American agronomist, cross-bred Norin 10 wheat with Mexican wheat and then cross-bred it with an American-N10 wheat cross-bread. This created disease resistance and could double wheat yields if used with fertilizers.
Region: North America 1963
As a result of Borlaugs's new wheat varieties, Mexico's wheat harvest increased by 600% through a period of nineteen years. Their exports also increased to 63,000 tons of wheat. March 1963
Borlaug arrived in India to help with food problems. With the use of his dwarf-wheat seeds and fertilizer, he managed to increase the wheat yields by five times more than previously.
Region: South Asia 1966
Researchers in China created a dwarf variety of rice called the IR8. This variety of rice produced yields five times more tons per hectare without fertilizer and ten times with. 1968
During a prescient speech, William Gaud informed the world about the success of the dwarf varieties of wheat around the world. He named this change the "Green Revolution". 2000
China became the world's largerst rice producer. 100% of their cultivated land was used for growing rice.
Region: Asia 2007
Corn ethanol, the primary form of biofuel, accounted for 40% of world production. As a result, farmers began to increase maize production and the prices raised. 1979
Wheat yields in China fell by 41% during their famine of 1949. 1959
Rice grain production decreased by 25% during the Great Leap Forward of China. 300 B.C.E
Chinese farmers introduced rice agriculture to the Japanese.
Region: Asia 2008
Wheat, rice, and maize are the most commonly consumed foods by humans. 1430-1530
During the Incan Empire, maize-planting ceremonies took place in it's capital, Cuzco. The king would plow a small piece of land to initiate the growing season. 1940's
During the Columbian Exchange, the supply of maize increased in Eurasia.
Regions: Europe & Asia 1555
Maize was referenced in China though people believe that it had been there since the 1530's. 1960
The International Rice Research Institution began working on ways to improve rice seeds.
Regions: Europe & Asia By: Amna Malik
Kleiber - 4th