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Logical Fallacies

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amani trice

on 30 September 2013

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Transcript of Logical Fallacies

Logical Fallacies
What are the different types logical fallacies?
What are some examples of these logical fallacies?
Ad Hominem
In a 2008 commercial, Time Warner cable claimed Direct Tv hated puppies. Instead of demonstrating how Direct Tv supposedly lacked in service, Time Warner decided to attack the character of Direct Tv. This is an example of Ad Hominem. This commercial aired on numerous television stations.
"You should never drive over the speed limit"
In Men in Black the pregnant woman was speeding in her car, going over the speed limit, in order to get to the hospital before she delivered her baby. This is an incident that refutes that generalizing statement.
Appeal to doubtful authority
Appeal to force
In a Michigan paper in 2011, Two Michigan Hooters girls, were reportedly told to lose weight or lose their jobs. The girls took their employer to court. This is a political appeal to force because they were threatened to be fired if they didn't lose weight.
On many Weight Watchers commercials shown on Lifetime, Jennifer Hudson, a famous and well known actress and musician, is often seen singing and endorsing their product. Even though she lost weight, we do not know if she actually used Weight Watchers nor is she a nutritional expert.
Appeal to pity
In 2012, Adam Lanza fatally shot and killed 27 people in a Sandy Hook elementary school. He also killed himself. Though he ended many lives, including the lives of children, many people still think of his mental illness as a crutch for his wrongdoings.
Argument From Ignorance
"Evolution is not true because there isn't enough evidence to prove it," this political example is an argument from ignorance because people claim it is false because it has not been proven true.
Circular Reasoning

The man with the hat is using circular reasoning because he is using his premise (the fossil is 3 billion years old) as his argument to the very conclusion he wants to prove.
Complex Questions
George Zimmerman had many people questioning his motive for shooting Trayvon Martin. This question is complex because it is not a simple yes or no question. This is political and the story appeared on many news stations such as CNN.
Glittering Generalization
“Oreo America’s Favorite Cookie” is a glittering generalization because there is no evidence provided to support this claim. This quote is present in all Oreo commercials and appears on the Oreo box.
Lil Wayne claimed himself the best rapper alive. He used this statement to help sell his album through his television commercials. He clearly inflated himself by claiming this title. He was quoted saying this during one of his concerts.

Snob Appeal
Dos Equis, a brand of beer, advertises its beer by using the “most interesting man in the world” to endorse it. This commercial is associating its product with the highest possible status available. The commercial appears on various television stations such as MTV and VH1.
Slippery Slope
In the movie Mean Girls, The Gym teacher who teaches sex education tells his student, "if you have sex you will get clamydia and you will die", this is an example of slippery slope because he exaggerates the potential consequences of the student's chocie
In this 1930's commercial, the slogan is "Everybody's doing it". They are trying to get people to smoke because apparently everyone smokes whether they know it or not.
Misleading Statistic
During the 2012 presidential elections, a lot of news reports used statistics. These statistics weren't really correct. There is really no way that the news can survey the entire U.S. population enough to make this argument.
Faulty cause-effect
Throughout the years, many people have tried to link terrorist attacks to wel known terrorists. Some people tried to say that Osama Bin Laden was responsible for the terrorist attacks on 9/11. No one really knows if he was or wasn't because there wasn't any evidence.
Many coming of age ads from the fifties listed women as brittle human beings. Ads with women on them just showed them cooking and cleaning at home. Even though that's mainly what women did during that time, we all know that a woman is capable of opening a ketchup bottle.
Plain Folks
In this ad, an everyday obese girl is used to show a point. She isn't well known. Actually, no one really knows her. But showing an average person to prove a point can actually help to relate to a certain audience.
In Yaz commercials, the use is to prevent unwanted pregnancies and to control the flow of menstrual cycles in women. But, down below, there are many symptoms that the commercial doesn't address such as dizziness and vomiting.
Tu Quoque
David Karp, the founder of Tumblr, tells kids to stay in school, but he himself dropped out of high school. This is an example of to quoque because he did not follow his own advice therefore his advice is invalid. He was quoted saying this during an interview on the Colbert Report.

Republicans claim that Obamacare has caused prices of health insurance to increase. They fabricated this claim in order to convince people to repeal Obamacare and make their argument appeal better.

False Analogy

This is a false analogy because she is comparing her failure to her sign. The two have nothing to do with each other, but she is using it to make her situation seem better.
False Dilemma
The saying "Either you're with me or against me" is a false dilemma because you have more options han that.
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