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Transcript of Bosnia Genocide
Third of a size of England
Next to the Adriatic Sea, South of Croatia and West of Serbia
Bosnia was part of the Ottoman (Turkish) Empire until 1878.
then became the part of Austro-Hungarian Empire until the First World War.
After the war it was united with other Slav territories to form Yugoslavia, essentially ruled and run by Serbs
By 1980 the population of Bosnia consisted of
1.3m Bosnian Serbs (Orthodox Catholic Christians)
Over 1million Bosniaks (Muslim)
0.7million Bosnian Croats (Roman Catholic Christians)
After the death of Yugoslavia's communist president Tito in 1980
His rule had held the federation together.
Croats and Bosniaks began to look for independence
Elections in 1990 brought nationalists to power in Croatia and Slovenia, which, together with Macedonia, declared independence in 1991 and were all recognized internationally.
The leader of Bosnia's multi-ethnic government, Alija Izetbegovic called for independence for Bosnia too which was recognised by the USA and the EU in 1992.
Serbs dream of Milosevic's "Greater Serbia"
The Yugoslav Army (mainly Serb) fighting in Crotia and Solvenia in 1991 turned its attention into Bosnia in 1992.
By the end of 1993 the Serbs (led by Radovan Karadzic) had set up their own Republika Srpska in the east and a Bosnian Serb army (under Ratko Mladic) was in control of nearly three quarters of the country
the Bosnian Croats had been mostly driven out of country, a small force continued fighting for its Bosnian territory until 1994 and the Bosniaks were hanging on only in the towns.
The European Union (EU) tried mediation but failed.
United Nation refused to intervene
But provided some humanitarian aid
Later UN peace-keeping force, undertook to protect 6 "safe areas", mainly Muslim and including Sarajevo (the Bosniak capital) and Srebrenica which failed.
All "safe area", except Sarajevo, fell to the Serbs and were "ethnically cleansed".
"Ethnically cleansed" was the Serbian term accepted by the USA and other members of the UN Security Council to avoid any reference to 'genocide', which would by international law demand their intervention.
The goal was political domination of particular group by isolating ethnic groups and if necessary exterminating them.
Attempts were made to expel Muslims and Croats
By targeting Civilians
Srebrenica, The town declared a UN safe area
In July 1995 Serb troops and paramilitaries led by Ratko Mladic began shelling it
Targets were thousands of Civilians
Food supplies and water began to dwindle, buildings were damaged, people were injured.
In Bosnia's capital, Sarajevo, a radio message from an amateur operator in Srebrenica was heard:
"Please do something. Whatever you can. In the name of God, do something."
Peace negotiations were held in Dayton, Ohio.
Agreement signed in December 1995 divided Bosnia into a Croat-Muslim Federation and Republika Srpska.
A NATO peace-keeping Forces were deployed who are still there facing intractable social and administrative problems.
1999 the UN inquiry, a shame.
"Through error, misjudgment, and an inability to recognize the scope of the evil confronting us, we failed to do our part to save the people of Srebrenica from the Serb campaign of mass murder."
Ratko Mladic and Radovan Karadzic were declared war criminals.
Radoslav Krstic, a commander working for Mladic, was arrested by NATO troops in December 1998 and charged with genocide for his part in the atrocities at Srebrenica.
"This is a case about the triumph of evil, professional soldiers who organized, planned and willingly participated in the genocide, or stood silent in the face of it"
In August 2001 Krstic was sentenced to 46 years imprisonment.
His story is one of a respected professional soldier who could not balk his superiors' insane desire to forever rid the Srebrenica area of Muslim civilians and who fully participated in the unlawful realization of this hideous design
"The tragedy of Srebrenica will forever haunt the history of the United Nations. This day commemorates a massacre on a scale unprecedented in Europe since the second world war - a massacre of people who had been led to believe that the UN would ensure their safety. We cannot undo this tragedy, but it is vitally important that the right lessons be learned and applied in the future. We must not forget that the architects of the killings in Srebrenica and elsewhere in Bosnia, although indicted by the international criminal tribunal, are still at large. This fact alone suggests that the most important lesson of Srebrenica - that we must recognise evil for what it is and confront it not with expediency and compromise but with implacable resistance - has yet to be fully learned and applied. As we mark the anniversary of the death of thousands of disarmed and defenceless men and boys, I wish to express once again to their families and friends my deepest regret and remorse. Their grief cannot be assuaged and must not be forgotten"
UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan
Pakistan in United Nations Protection Forces for Bosnia
On the request of United Nations, Pakistan army left for Bosnia and Crotia in May 1994. Two battalion groups PAKBAT 1 and PAKBAT 2 were deployed in the towns of Dares and Durdevik (near the city of Tuzla) in Bosnia while the National Support Headquarters remained based at Split, Croatia.
They were tasked to stabilize the military situation, improving freedom of movement by maintaining existing routes, providing protection and supporting various United Nations agencies and NGOs engaged in their relief activities and coordinate humanitarian assistance.
Two officers, one junior commissioned officer and three non commissioned officers laid down their lives for the noble cause of bringing peace to a war ravaged territory.
Slobodan Milosevic who became Serbian Leader in 1987, intensified Serbian nationalism
Genocide is the deliberate and systematic destruction of group of people because of their ethnicity, nationality, religion or race.
Since founding of UN:
Over 55 genocides and politicides
Over 70 million dead
UN Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide defines Genocide as as any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such:
Killing members of the group;
Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group;
Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part;
Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group;
Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.
Bosnia before the genocide
Bosnia during the genocide