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Tackling Complex Text: Struggling Readers

This presentation will cover strategies and tools to support struggling readers.
by

Susan Hardin

on 6 February 2014

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Transcript of Tackling Complex Text: Struggling Readers

Conclusion
Thank you !
And one more thing...
Supporting
Struggling Students and
Complex Text

Genius or Slacker?
"Give me a fish while you’re teaching me how to catch my own. That way I won’t starve to death while I’m learning to tie flies."
Reading Skills
An Either Or Proposition?
Reading For Meaning
Augmenting with Text to Speech
: Free Tools
Phonics/Fluency
The rich get richer....
Think Share

Is this the easy way out or
is this a solution for some
students? What are the benefits and the pitfalls?
Teaching Reading
Balanced With
Augmenting Reading for Content Learning
Phonics/Phonemic Awareness
Fluency
Vocabulary
Comprehension: an intentional and thoughtful interaction between the reader and the text
influenced by background knowledge, text structure, fluency and vocabulary.
teaching comprehension includes teaching:
question answering
connecting to text (relevance)
question generation
identifying main ideas
summarization
Natural Reader: http://www.naturalreaders.com/index.htm
Vocabulary
Text to speech on the iPad : in Safari
The dilemma: Reading frequency is the primary
tool for vocabulary development and vocabulary
is essential for comprehension and...
Average
middle school students read about
1,000,000
words per year
Struggling
middle school students read
100,000
Voracious
middle school readers read
10,000,000 to 50,000,000

Other differences
Students with learning disabilities learn and retain words at a much slower rate than other students.
Tech Tools to Support
Vocabulary
One Click Answers
Dictionary ToolTip
http://www.dictionarytip.com/
Background Knowledge
the degree of knowledge of a subject area or key vocabulary prior to reading correlates directly to higher scores on reading comprehension measures (Langer, 1984; Long et al., 1989; Stevens, 1980).
Quizlet with Images
http://quizlet.com
iPad iOS - dictionary
ReWordify: http://rewordify.com/

Multiple Examples
Multiple Media Types

Spark Notes with Readability
http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/mocking/
Cool Tools
Mentor Mob
http://www.mentormob.com/learn/i/studying-madagascar/madagascar-on-fotopedia
Museum Box
http://museumbox.e2bn.org/
During Reading
Analyzing Text Structure
Summarizing
Asking Questions
Highlighting Main Ideas
Making Connections
Time to Try it Out!
Wordle http://thecleversheep.blogspot.com/2008/10/top-20-uses-for-wordle.html
Sparknotes App
Does your school offer systematic, remedial reading instruction to students reading below grade level. If yes, what instructional program are you using?
Quizlet Apps: Quizard A+Flashcard Pro
Wordnik: https://www.wordnik.com
Inkling: A Textbook Case of Innovation
iBooks Gallery and Video: EO Wilson
Google Images and Camera Roll
Diigo
http://diigo.com/0qgxs
Foxit Reader
Adobe Acrobat/Preview
For iPad neu.Annotate +
https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/neu.annotate+-pdf/id478313705?mt=8
After Reading
How are you teaching
students to activate their
own background knowledge?
Google Lit Trips
http://www.googlelittrips.org/
What tool will you try to support reading?
Cool Tools:
Gliffy
http://www.gliffy.com/gliffy/#
Idea Sketch on iPad
Smart Art
Inspiration
Text Compactor
http://textcompactor.com/
60 Second Recap
http://www.60secondrecap.com/library/
Reading in Science:
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/misunderstoodminds/experiences/readexp1a.html
PBS Learning Media
http://www.pbslearningmedia.org
iPad Tools:
Tier 1:
Basic -e.g. book, orange, number
Tier 2:
Descriptive, across environments - e.g. experiment, exaggerate, liberal
****
Tier 3:
Specific - e.g. parabola, amino acid
Analyzing Text Structure
Identifying the structure of a text (or multiple structures within the text) helps students to understand complex text.

Tools for analyzing Text Structure
Text Structure GO
http://www.missionliteracy.com/reading1.html
Highlighter Tape, sticky notes, flags
FoxitReader or Adobe or Preview
iPad: Neu.Annotate
https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/neu.annotate+-pdf/id478313705?mt=8

Model, Guided and Independent Practice
Scaffold students as they learn how to
preview a text to build background knowledge;
use a concept map to expand vocabulary;
identify key details and make logical inferences; determine main ideas and themes; analyze characters, events, and ideas;
interpret language; analyze text structure

Improved fluency unleashes cognitive resources.
(Willingham, 2006)
Learning new and challenging vocabulary in content-related texts, is best facilitated by providing direct instruction that focuses on:
simple definitions
examples and non-examples
semantic maps that reflect the likely sources and possible uses of a new word.
(Kim, Vaughn, Wanzek, & Wei, 2004)
What is Complex Text?
Complex texts require a slower labor. Readers can't proceed to the next paragraph without grasping the previous one, they can't glide over unfamiliar words and phrases, and
they can't forget what they read four pages earlier. They must double back, discern ambiguities, follow tricky transitions, and keep a dictionary close at hand.

Complex texts can be lengthy and opaque, the product of careful thought and studied composition. To address them, readers may need to sit down with them for several hours of concentration. Readers need to be patient enough to ponder a single sentence for a few minutes, because many complex texts aren't just purveyors of information, but expressions of value and perspective.


Students with a learning disability benefit from direct instruction on reading comprehension strategies including:
noting confusing or difficult words/concepts
creating images
pausing after each paragraph to summarize
(Carnine, 1994)
Cool Tools for Marginalia
(asking questions, main ideas, organizing information)
Cool Tools for Summarizing
Handouts:
http://tinyurl.com/SSComplexText

Susan Hardin
Assistive Technology Consultant
Macomb ISD
shardin@misd.net

http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/feb11/vol68/num05/Too-Dumb-for-Complex-Texts%C2%A2.aspx
Mark Bauerlein
Learning Close Reading
for Complicated Text in the Disciplines

4. What happens if two different kinds of ants come to your picnic? Watch and find out! (Most likely you’ll get just one kind though.)

Fussy Eaters?
5. Ants don’t always take the first food they find. Instead, they may investigate, touching many pieces of food with their antennae. What does this bit taste like? Exactly how big is it? Those are the kinds of things the ants are checking out. When they finally choose a food, the ants carry it back to their nest.

Paragraph #5: Highlight the word in the heading above paragraph #5 that the author uses to try to be humorous. (“Fussy”)


Paragraph #5: Highlight the words that the author is suggesting to be the words of the ants. (“What does this bit taste like? Exactly how big is it?”)

Guided Highlighted Reading
for craft, structure and perspective

Title: Highlight the word that indicates the topic. (“Ants”)
Paragraph #1: Highlight the two words that signal that the author will give examples to prove her point. (“For example”)
Paragraph #2: Highlight the two sentence that the author uses to get the reader’s attention. (“Want to find out what the ants in your neighborhood like to eat?”)
Paragraph #2: Highlight the words that signal that the author will give examples to help make her point clear. (“such as”)

Ants may be tiny–but they’re serious eaters! Try these neat experiments to find out what ants in your backyard like to eat.
Ants love a picnic. And just like you, they have favorite foods. For example, harvester ants from the southwestern United States collect seeds. Carpenter ants like to eat insects and juicy fruits. Leafcutter ants munch on fungus salads that they grow in underground gardens.
Want to find out what the ants in your neighborhood like to eat? Place small amounts of different foods on the edge of an upside-down plate. You can use peanut butter, honey, mashed banana, grated apple or cheese, and seeds (such as barley, sunflower seeds without shells, or sesame seeds).

Guided Highlighted Reading
Grade 3

Title: Highlight the word that indicates the topic. (“Ants”)
Paragraph #1: Highlight the two words that signal that the author will give examples to prove her point. (“For example”)
Paragraph #2: Highlight the two sentence that the author uses to get the reader’s attention. (“Want to find out what the ants in your neighborhood like to eat?”)
Paragraph #2: Highlight the words that signal that the author will give examples to help make her point clear. (“such as”)

Ants may be tiny–but they’re serious eaters! Try these neat experiments to find out what ants in your backyard like to eat.
Ants love a picnic. And just like you, they have favorite foods. For example, harvester ants from the southwestern United States collect seeds. Carpenter ants like to eat insects and juicy fruits. Leafcutter ants munch on fungus salads that they grow in underground gardens.
Want to find out what the ants in your neighborhood like to eat? Place small amounts of different foods on the edge of an upside-down plate. You can use peanut butter, honey, mashed banana, grated apple or cheese, and seeds (such as barley, sunflower seeds without shells, or sesame seeds).

Guided Highlighted Reading
Grade 3

“Vocabulary is the single most important factor contributing to reading comprehension”


Overcoming Textbook Fatigue, 2013, ReLeah Cossett Lent
Preamble Marginalia:
http://www.usconstitution.net/const.pdf

I do, we do, you do
Make it Explicit!
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