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The Early Cold War, 1945-1953
Transcript of The Early Cold War, 1945-1953
The Marshall Plan
NSC 68 and Korea
1) What was NSC 68? Did it cause policy change?
2) Why did the United States go to war in Korea in the summer of 1950?
Beginning of the Cold War
Berlin Crisis and Airlift
Blueprint for US Cold War foreign policy
North Atlantic Treaty signed in April of 1949
US afraid of communist expansion in Asia
Korean Civil War - North (communist) invaded South (US-supported) on 25 June 1950
China eventually got involved - an international war
Armistice in 1953
The Cold War was now a real war
World War II - differences between the Allies in goals and methods
Big Three conferences - Tehran (1943), Yalta (1945) and Potsdam (1945) - agreement to divide Germany in 4 occupation zones (Berlin also divided into 4) and agreement to "move" Poland westwards and to install a democratically elected government
USSR wanted security and guarantees against new German threat
U.S. was looking to create a world based on self-determination and collective security (though in practise controlled by the Great Powers) - this became the beginning of the United Nations
FDR died in April of 1945
Harry Truman succeeded him
Stalin speech, February of 1946: conflict with West is inevitable
George Kennan's Long Telegram, February of 1946: Soviet expansionism must be contained
The Truman Doctrine
March of 1947 - background was civil war in Greece and potential conflict in Turkey
"I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures"
George Marshall, Secretary of State
Dean Acheson, Marshall's successor
Kennan as Director of the Policy Planning Staff
Provided monetary and other help and relief to participating European countries from 1948-1953
European economies were integrated through the OEEC
Currency reform and the joining of Western zones
Czech coup, 1948
CIA and the Italian elections, 1948
Stalin cut off ground access to West Berlin
Truman decided not to give up the American position
Berlin Airlift instituted - Stalin lifted the blockade in the spring of 1949
Part of American containment policy
Reason for NATO according to first Secretary General, Lord Ismay: Keep the Americans in, the Russians out and the Germans down"
Nothing more than a political union until Korean War
Militarization of the containment doctrine - implementing the full potential of the Truman Doctrine
Ideals over interests - or ideals defining national interest
The Twin Shock of 1949
Soviet detonation of nuclear device
Loss of American atomic monopoly
American belief of the necessity of expanding its power to contain the growing threat
From defensive to offensive posture
Loss of China
Communist victory in the Chinese civil war
Doubling of the Communist world
Threat was imminent
Something had to be done