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Copy of The Endocrine System

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nikita stapleton

on 2 October 2014

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Transcript of Copy of The Endocrine System

Sends messages throughout the body
Maintains homesostasis and controls body changes
Made up of a series of glands and secretions (called hormones)
Works with the nervous system
Nervous System
Works quickly
Effects short lived
Uses neurotransmitters
The Endocrine System
Endocrine System
Works more slowly
Effects usually last longer
Uses hormones
Often Work Together
to regulate: metabolism, water and salt balance, blood pressure, response to stress, and sexual reproduction

Baby crying > milk production
1. Endocrine
hormones are secreted into blood to regulate the function of distant target cell
2. Paracrine
hormones are secreted into surrounding extracellular space. Target cells are neighbors
3. Neuroendocrine
nerve cells secrete hormones into blood & into brain interstitial space
How It Works
secretory cells release chemical agents (hormones) for the purpose of mediating biologic responses in target cells
There are 3 forms of hormonal communication:

Endocrine gland secretes hormone

blood stream

target cell

Do not confuse with Exocrine glands
Exocrine gland
often to external surface
saliva, sweat, tears
Non- Steroid
made up of cholesterol
hydrophobic and fat soluble
binds to receptor within cell to stimulate protein synthesis
made up of proteins, peptides, or amino acids
hydrophilic and not fat soluble
bind with receptors on cell membrane
sets off chain reaction within cell
Increase metabolic rate & oxygen consumption
Secretion stimulated by TSH from the anterior pituitary
TSH and thyroxine function by negative feedback
Not an endocrine gland- part of the brain connected to the pituitary gland
Monitors state of body's environment
Synthesizes hormones
Regulates pituitary gland activity

Interacts with anterior pituitary by portal system
Hormones from secretary nerve cells in the hypothalamus move down axons to tissue in the posterior pituitary
Pineal Gland
Small, pine cone shaped gland
Center of brain between two hemispheres
Produces melatonin
Stimulated by darkness, inhibited by light
Anterior Pituitary
Posterior Pituitary
Controlled by releasing and inhibiting hormones from the hypothalamus
Produces : THS, ACTH, Prolactin, HGH & Gonadotropins
Stores and secretes hormones made in the hypothalamus
Oxytocin & ADH
Reduces blood calcium
Opposes affects of parathyroid hormone (PTH) by negative feedback loop
Adrenal Glands
Two- one on top of each kidney
Important in response to stress
Two layers- outer cortex & inner medulla
regulated by ACTH from anterior pituitary
produces cortisol & aldosterone
-raises blood glucose & partial supression of immune system
-osmoregulation & blood pressure regulation
Sex hormones- androgens & estrogens

secretes epinephrine
-increase blood glucose
-increse blood pressure
-increase breathing rate
-increase metabolic rate
-change in blood flow patterns

Has exocrine and endocrine cells
Acinar cells (forming most of the pancreas)
-Exocrine function
-Secrete digestive enzymes
Islet of Langerhans Cells
-Endocrine function

Alpha Cells
Beta Cells
Secrete glucagon
Breaks down glycogen to glucose
Increases blood sugar
Secrete insulin
Stimulates uptake of glucose by cells (especially liver, muscle and fat)
Converts glucose-> glycogen
Lower blood sugar
Negative Feedback Loop
4 glands on the thyroid
Produce parathyroid hormone (PTH)
Raises blood calcium
Produces thymosins
-Stimulate production and maturation of T- lymphocyctes
-Function in immune system
regulated by FSH and LH the anterior pituitary

Produces androgens
-support sperm formation
-promote development and maintenance of male secondary sex characteristics
Produces estrogens and progestins
-stimulate uterine lining growth
-promote development and maintenance of female secondary sex characteristics
-stimulate uterine lining growth
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