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Habitat: Ocean

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Bwelehtoo wah

on 27 July 2015

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Transcript of Habitat: Ocean

Habitat: Ocean
There are two main types of plants found in the ocean: plants with roots that are attached to the ocean floor and plants that drift freely through the water. Plants that are rooted to the ocean floor are not found deeper than a few hundred feet because sunlight cannot reach that deep into the ocean.

The richest plants found in the ocean are phytoplankton. Phytoplankton are single-celled autotrophs that drift throughout the surface waters of the ocean. Phytoplankton are much too small to see withthe naked eyes, but large clusters may give the ocean surface a green hue. These plants need abundant sunlight and nutrients to grow. Tropical waters have the most sunlight, but lack a sufficient amount of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorous. Because of this, most phytoplankton are found in cooler waters where the deeper parts of the ocean bring these essential nutrients to the surface. Phytoplankton, marine plants and algae provide a high amount of oxygen to the world. They also take in large amounts of carbon dioxide due to photosynthesis.

http://www.ask.com/science/plants-survive-ocean-ee811a2c01132d28 22/07/15
Killer Whale
Adaptation On Fish
a system of interlocking and interdependent food chains.
What's A Food Web and what is it look like?
In my food web their are four creatures that are competing against each other. One of the pairs is Whale Sharks and Great Barracudas. Both of them are going against each other for Pelagic Fish Bluestripe snappers which is secondary consumers. The Other pairs is Krills and Copepods. Both of them are going against each other for phytoplankton which is a producer and Protozoan which is a primary consumers.
Ocean: Habitat
Sunlight may travel about 1,000 meters (3,280 feet) into the ocean under the right conditions, but there is rarely any significant light beyond 200 meters (656 feet).

The ocean is divided into three zones based on depth and light level. The upper 200 meters (656 feet) of the ocean is called the euphotic, or "sunlight," zone. This zone contains the vast majority of commercial fisheries and is home to many protected marine mammals and sea turtles.

Only a small amount of light penetrates beyond this depth.

The zone between 200 meters (656 feet) and 1,000 meters (3,280 feet) is usually referred to as the “twilight” zone, but is officially the dysphotic zone. In this zone, the power of light quickly vanishers as depth increases. Such a miniscule amount of light penetrates beyond a depth of 200 meters that photosynthesis is no longer possible.
The aphotic, or “midnight,” zone exists in depths below 1,000 meters (3,280 feet). Sunlight does not penetrate to these depths and the zone is darkness.

Biotic and Abiotic Factors
ecologyofchesapeakebay101.weebly.com 21/07/15
http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/light_travel.html 23/06/2015
1. Of or having to do with life or living organisms.

2. Produced or caused by living organisms.

3. Soething the alive.
My Food Web

The main plants that are found in the open ocean biome are species of seaweed. They are only able to grow in the areas of the ocean that have sunlight. This is because sunlight is required for the process of photosynthesis.

In the open ocean, there are hundreds of plant-like organisms known as algae. While algae is typically green, it can carry out photosynthesis, and resembles plants, it is technically classified as a plant-like protist and is a member of the Kingdom Protista.

http://study.com/academy/lesson/open-ocean-biome-plants-animals-climate-definition.html 22/07/15
What is Omnivores, CanoIvores, Autoroph and Herbivores?

: an animal or person that eats a variety of food of both plant and animal origin.

: an animal that feeds on other animals.

: an animal that feeds on plants.

: an organism that is able to form nutritional organic substances from simple inorganic substances such as carbon dioxide.
Great White Shark
Eat Meat
Eat Meat & Plants
Eat Meat
Eat Meats
Eat Meat & Plants
Eat Plants
The cleaner shrimp seems reckless, climbing into the open mouths of sharp-fanged eels to dig around for food. These images (to the right) seem to report a brave shrimp before it gets eaten, but actually shows an ancient tradition of cleaning. Moreover, these shrimp have evolved beyond merely finding eels and fish in order to eat their mouth parasites: they congregate at ‘cleaning stations’ in vast numbers.
Symbiotic Mutualism
Boxing, hermit and other crabs have found that they make friends with strange benefits in various species of stinging sea anemones. Boxing crabs (on the top picture) hold on to anemones and wield them like deadly pom-poms, warding off potential predators with their poisonous pals. Some hermit crabs (above, bottom) lift anemones and attach them to their shells in order to dissuade attackers. These relationships go both ways: the anemones are able to pick up more food as they move through the water with their shelled allies.
Barnacles and whales

Barnacles and whales have a different type of symbiotic relationship that is known as commensalism. Commensalism describes a situation where only one species benefits from the relationship without causing any significant harm to the other. In the case of barnacles and whales, it’s the barnacles that benefit from the relationship. Barnacles feed by attaching themselves to a whale’s belly or back, allowing the species to then eat microorganisms as the whale swims. So this is a parasite.

Symbiotic commensalism
Why do fish breathe? Fish breathe to get more oxygen in their bloodstream. Oxygen is needed to burn food and provide energy. Fish's cells use oxygen to break down the food into simpler molecules. This releases energy. Fish use the energy produced to perform their bodily functions like swimming, digesting food, reproducing.
What are the function perform by fish?
Food Chain
Why do fish eat? Fish need to eat in order to get energy. In an aquarium, we need to provide the food that the fish need. Energy is used for growing, swimming, breathing, and reproducing. The food they eat is digested into glucose. Cells break down glucose, and then through a series of chemical reactions and with the assistance of oxygen, the cells release energy.
How do fish eat and excrete waste? Fish digest their food in the stomach and intestine. Enzymes, in the stomach and intestine, break down food into smaller molecules. Undigested food is excreted out as solid waste. Kidney is the excretory organ in fish. The kidney filters out liquid waste. It also maintains an ideal concentration of water and salt inside the fish.
http://reptools.rutgers.edu/Functpage3.html 24/07/15
Nonliving: The abiotic factors of the environment include light, temperature, and atmospheric gases. something that isn't alive.
Function of the fins in swimming

It must be emphasized that the swimming movements are produced by the whole of the muscular body, and in only a few fish do the fins contribute any propulsive force. Their main function is to control the stability and direction of the fish.

The tail fin, in its final lash, may contribute as much as 40 per cent of the forward thrust.

The median fins, that is, the dorsal, anal and ventral fins, control the rolling and yawing movements of the fish by increasing the vertical surface area presented to the water.

The paired fins, pectoral and pelvic, act as hydroplanes and control the pitch of the fish, causing it to swim downwards or upwards according to the angle to the water at which they are held by their muscles. The pectoral fins lie in front of the centre of gravity and, being readily mobile, are chiefly responsible for sending the fish up or down. The paired fins are also the means by which the fish slows down and stops.

http://www.biology-resources.com/fish-01.html 25/07/15

External features

Nostrils. The nostrils of the fish do not open into the back of the mouth as do those of mammals, and are not for breathing. They lead into organs of smell which are as a rule, very sensitive, so that a fish can detect the presence of food in the water at considerable distances.

Eyes. The eyes of a fish have large round pupils which do not vary in size.

Hearing. Although fish have no ears visible externally they can hear by transmission of vibrations through the body to sensitive zone of the inner ear.

Mouth. The mouth serves for taking in food; also for the breathing current of water. Some fish have a wide gape, and filter microscopic plants and animals out of the surface waters as they swim along, trapping them in gill rake before the water is expelled from the operculum.

The operculum is a bony structure covering and protecting the gills in teleosts; it plays an important part in the breathing mechanism. Elasmobranchs do not have an operculum but there are separate gill slits for each gill.

The lateral line is a jelly-filled tube or canal just below the skin. It opens to the water outside by a series of tiny pores. Its function is to detect movements in the water. A disturbance set up, for example, by a person's hand moving in the water, will cause the jelly in the tube to vibrate. The canal is lined with nerve endings which are stimulated by vibrations and send impulses to the brain. In this way the fish is made aware of the direction and intensity of water movements. The sensitivity of this system makes even a blind fish very difficult to catch by hand.

Fins give stability, and control the direction of movement during swimming, as explained later.

How do plants provide oxygen?

Plants can produce their own food by the process of photosynthesis. During photosynthesis plants use light energy and carbon dioxide to produce sugar and oxygen. The oxygen is released into water where it dissolves. Fish and other aquarium inhabitants use this dissolved oxygen to breathe.
What are the functions performed by plants?

Plants have many different roles. They photosynthesize, producing and releasing oxygen while utilizing the waste and carbon dioxide produced in the tank. Plants also provide shelter for the fish. In addition, plants make aquariums look pretty. Plants in the aquarium can be of many different kinds.
Fish Reproduction and Food Facts
Why do fish reproduce?

Baby fish are needed to replace the dead fish in the fish population. If fish do not reproduce then the fish population will die out. In order to reproduce, fish need space and energy. Fish reproduce by laying eggs. Breeding habits of fish are also different for different types of fish.
Why do fish need space to reproduce?

For a fish to reproduce successfully, an aquarium needs a lot of space and hiding places (like plants, rocks, sand or wood). These hiding places serve as secure places where fish can deposit the eggs. Baby fish, also called fry, can use these spaces to hide from big fish (which can eat them).
How do fish reproduce?

Fish breed in different ways. There are two main strategies that fish use: egglaying and livebearing. Livebearing female fish are internally fertilized by the male fish, and carry the fry for about a month before delivering them. Egglaying fish lay eggs instead of giving birth to little fish. Egglayers have many methods of laying eggs. For example, substrate spawners lay eggs in protected areas such as plants, rocks, wood. Mouthbrooders actually keep their eggs in their mouths until the eggs hatch.
Why do different fish need different types of food?

Different types of fish have different nutritional needs. The same food is not ideal for all types of fish, or indeed for fish at all stages of their development. Baby fish need a good protein and rich diet that allows them to grow properly. Some types of fish need a plants that are rich on diets while others feed more on animal food. However it is important to remember that fish are not strict plant eaters or animal eaters. They just need more of one kind of food compared to the other.
Fish Excrete Waste Fact
Why do fish excrete waste?

Fish excrete both solid and liquid wastes to remove toxic substances like ammonia from their body. The kidney is the fish's primary excretory organ. It removes waste products from the body and also helps maintain the correct balance of salts and water in fish.
http://reptools.rutgers.edu/Functpage21.html 25/07/15
http://reptools.rutgers.edu/Functpage23.html 25/07/15
http://www.biology-resources.com/fish-01.html 25/07/15
What are the functions performed by algae?

Algae are organisms that live in water. They can be single celled or many celled (sea weed). Algae provide food for the fish. For example some fish eat algae.
Although it is important to have some algal growth in the aquarium, excessive algal growth can be unhealthy for an aquarium.
Why is excessive algal growth a problem?

When the water is rich in nutrients from too many fish and sun light , it may result in the extra growth of algae. A large number of algae in the tank compete with oxygen producing plants for the nutrients, light and oxygen. Excess algae may appear as green tinted water or hairy growth around the aquarium. That is why it is important to control the amount of light and to make sure that the waste produced by fish is removed promptly.
Algae Facts
Adaptations for Water

Many structures in fish are adaptations for their aquatic lifestyle.
• Fish have gills that allow them to “breathe” oxygen in water. Water enters the mouth, passes over the gills, and exits the body through a special opening. Gills absorb oxygen from the water as it passes over them.
• Fish have a stream-lined body. They are typically long and narrow, which reduces water resistance when they swim.
• Most fish have several fins for swimming. They use some of their fins to move themselves through water and others to steer the body as the body move.
• Fish have a system of muscles for movement. Muscle contractions ripple through the body in waves from head to tail. The contractions whip the tail fin against the water to lauch the fish through the water.
• Most fish have a swim bladder. This is a balloon-like internal organ that contains gas. By changing the amount of gas in the bladder, a fish can move up or down through the water column.

More On Structual and funtion
Structure and Function in Fish

Fish are aquatic vertebrates. They make up more than half of all vertebrate species. They are especially important in the study of vertebrate evolution because several important vertebrate traits evolved in fish. Fish show great diversity in body size. They range in length from about 8 millimeters (0.3 inches) to 16 meters (about 53 feet). Most are ectothermic and covered with scales. Scales protect fish from predators and parasites and reduce friction with the water. Multiple, overlapping scales provide a flexible covering that allows fish to move easily while swimming.
Fish Organ Systems

Fish have a circulatory system with a two-chambered heart. Their digestive system is complete and includes several organs and glands. Jawed fish use their jaws and teeth to grind up food before passing it to the rest of the digestive tract. This allows them to consume larger prey.

Fish also have a centralized nervous system with a brain. Fish brains are small compared with the brains of other vertebrates, but they are large and complex compared with the brains of invertebrates. Fish also have highly developed sense organs that allow them to see, hear, feel, smell, and taste. Sharks and some other fish can even sense the very low levels of electricity emitted by other animals. This helps them locate prey.

http://www.ck12.org/biology/Fish-Structure-and-Function/lesson/Fish-Structure-and-Function/?referrer=concept_details 25/07/15
Hunting Technique and Behavior

Killer whales hunt in lots of different ways depending on what food they are after, but there is one thing in common to all these hunts – and that they always hunt in groups.

For example some groups of killer whales (or orcas) hunt for herd fish by swimming in a line and forcing the fish onto the beache where they pick them up. Some groups surround fish with rings of bubbles which panics the fish to jump over the ring to get away but the fish only go straight into the mouths of orca's!

Also some groups that eat seals, they might spy one on a small iceburg and then they would form a line. After that they would splash their tail and fins very hard to create a wave. Then the wave would knock over the iceburg which will make the killer whale grab the seal.

http://askascientist.co.uk/biology/killer-whales-hunt-food/ 26/07/15
Though killer whales, also called orcas, are considered whales by most people, they are actually members of the dolphin's family. Killer whales are excellent hunters that eat fish, seals, and big whales such as blue whales. Despite their hunting of other animals, free-ranging killer whales have never been reported killing a human being.

Interesting Facts:
• Killer whales are social animals that live in stable family-related groups. Killer whales display a high level of care for their offspring. In addition to the mothers, various pod members (mainly adolescent females) perform most of the care for the calves. As with most mammals, killer whales are very protective of their young.

• Different killer whale pods "sound" different. Each pod has their own vocal sound. They can easily recognize their own pod from several miles away based on the differences in calls.

• Killer whales are often compared to wolves because they are both top predators, maintain multiple social relationships and hunt together.

• To some, killer whales look exactly alike however they can be identify from one another by the shape and size of their dorsal fins, the distinctive grayish-white saddle patches behind their dorsal fins, as well as distinctive scars, cuts and marks on their dorsal fins.

http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/nmml/education/cetaceans/killer.php 26/07/15

Social Behavior
1.Killer whales in a pod establish strong social bonds. Observers note that certain individuals are regularly seen associating with one another.

2.The strongest association bonds in a pod are the mother/calf bonds. A mother killer whale stays close to her newborn calf and attentively directs its movements. The mother/calf bond weakens as a young killer whale matures, but for resident whales of the eastern North Pacific, it lasts throughout adulthood. In fact, these resident killer whales societies are unique in that a juvenile killer whale does not leave its mother or disperse (doesn't leave) from its maternal (family) pod when it matures. In transient pods of the eastern North Pacific Ocean, a whale may leave its mother to travel alone or with other whales.

Individual Behavior
1.Whale watchers and researchers have named certain common whale behaviors. A breach is a behavior in which a whale powerfully thrusts a large part of its body out of the water and lands on the surface - usually on its side or on its back - with a huge splash. Sometimes the same whale will breach several times in sequence. A spyhop is a behavior in which a whale rises out of the water somewhat vertically, exposing its head.Lob-tailing (slapping the tail flukes on the surface of the water), dorsal fin slapping (rolling onto one side to slap the fin on the surface of the water), and pec-slapping (slapping a pectoral flipper on the surface of the water) create loud sounds above water and under water.

http://seaworld.org/en/animal-info/animal-infobooks/killer-whale/adaptations/ 26/07/15

Behavioral Adaptation
Structural Adaptation
Body Shape
1.The general body shape of a killer whale is roughly round but narrow at both ends. This characteristic fusiform shape is quite energy efficient for swimming. Compared to other body shapes, this body shape creates less drag (the opposing force an object generates as it travels through water).

1.Killer whales are solid black and white, with a gray patch called a “saddle” or a “cape” on the back, just behind the dorsal fin. The dorsal surfaces are mostly black with the exception of a gray "saddle" located behind the dorsal fin.

2.The large areas of black and white are distinctly separate. The entire dorsal (top) surface and pectoral flippers are black except for the gray saddle. The belly (bottom) surface, lower jaw, and underneath of the tail flukes are mostly white. The undersides of the tail flukes are borded with black. An oval, white "eyespot" is just above and slightly behind each eye.
The size and shape of a killer whale’s white areas and gray saddle divide greatly among ecotypes. Conspicuous eye and saddle patches may help killer whales in groups equal, social interactions, hunting and swimming in formation.

3.The distinctive colouration of killer whales is a type of disturbing colour, a pattern that darken the outline of an animal by contradicting the animal’s body shape. In the flickering, filtered sunlight of the sea, other animals may not recognize a killer whale as a potential predator.

http://seaworld.org/animal-info/animal-infobooks/killer-whale/physical characteristics/ 26/07/15

Pectoral Flippers
1. A killer whale's forelimbs are adapted for swimming. A killer whales uses its rounded, paddlelike pectoral flippers to steer and, with the help of the flukes, to stop.

2.Pectoral flippers have the major skeletal elements of the forelimbs of land mammals, but they are shortened and fitted. The skeletal elements are tightly supported by connective tissue. A killer whale's pectoral flipper contains five digits much like the fingers on a human hand.

3.Blood circulation in the pectoral flippers adjusts to help maintain body temperature.

1.Each lobe of the two-lobed tail is called a fluke. Flukes are flat pads of tough, dense, fibrous connective tissue, completely without bone or cartilage (bony process).

3.Longitudinal (long) muscles in the back one-third of the body (both above and below the spine) move the flukes up and down.

4.Like the arteries of the flippers, the arteries of the flukes are surrounded by veins to help maintain body temperature.

http://seaworld.org/animal-info/animal-infobooks/killer-whale/physical-characteristics/ 27/07/15

Dorsal Fin
1.Like the flukes, the dorsal fin is made of dense, fibrous connective tissue, without bones or cartilage (bony process).

2.As in the flukes and the flippers, arteries (lines) in the dorsal fin are surrounded by veins to help maintain body temperature.

3.Like the keel of a boat, the dorsal fin may help steady a killer whale as it swims at high speeds, but a fin is not needed to a whale’s balance.

4.Some killer whales (both male and female) have irregular-shaped dorsal fins: they may be curved, wavy, twisted, scarred, or bent.

1.A killer whale has an dark rostrum (snoutlike projection).

2.A single blowhole on top of the head is covered by a strong flap. A killer whale breathes through its blowhole. The blowhole is relaxed in a closed position, and the flap provides a water-tight seal. To open its blowhole, a killer whale contracts the powerful flap.

3.A killer whale’s eyes are on each side of its head, just behind and above the corner of its mouth, and in front of its white eyespot.

4.A killer whale’s eyes are about the same size as the eyes of a cow. Glands (group of cells) at the inner corners of the eye sockets secrete an oily, jellylike mucus that smooth the eyes, washes away debris, and probably help make killer whale focus while swimming.

5.Ears are small and hidden just behind each eyes, with no external flaps or fin. These small external ear openings lead to reduced ear canals that are not connected to the middle ears.

1.A killer whale’s large teeth are conical and interlocking. Toothed whales have only one set of teeth; they are not replaced once lost.

2.A killer whale does not chew its food—instead its teeth are adapted to grasp prey and tear its food into smaller pieces.

3. The teeth of killer whale might see very small but it's sharp and it help it to bite it's prey and eat them.

1.A killer whale’s dermis (skin) is smooth. The outer layer continually and rapidly renews itself, and the old skin sloughs off.

2.The increased skin cell turnover increases swimming efficiency by creating a smooth body surface which reduces drag.

http://seaworld.org/animal-info/animal-infobooks/killer-whale/physical-characteristics/ 26/07/15
http://seaworld.org/animal-info/animal-infobooks/killer-whale/physical-characteristics/ 26/07/15
Function Adaption
Conscious breathing

Because whales are mammals they breathe oxygen, so must come to the surface of the water to breathe.

Due to this fact whales are never able to fall completely asleep because if they did there is a good chance they would drown.

To combat this problem when a whale needs rest it goes into a semi conscious state and half of its brain shuts down, but the other half of the brain remains conscious allowing the whale to quickly come up for oxygen and inhale when it needs to.

During periods of rest whales can often be found logging around (resting motionless) at or near the surface of the water so that they can easily obtain oxygen whenever necessary.

http://www.whalefacts.org/whale-adaptations/ 27/07/15

In order to survive in the ocean whales have to adapt their lungs so that they could breathe easily and hold their breath for extended amounts of time when submerged underwater.

While whales aren’t born with massively large lungs they are able to exchange as much as 90% of the oxygen they breathe as compared to humans who only exchange 10 %- 15%.

Larger red blood cells allow whales to transfer oxygen more effectively than humans and other land mammals, and when submerged underwater their diving reflex allows them to distribute oxygen and blood to vital organs while restricting it in other non-essential areas.


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