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Oliver Cromwell - Timeline

Maya Thomas Y8 History homework

Surinder Thomas

on 17 October 2012

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Transcript of Oliver Cromwell - Timeline

1599 1660 April 25th - Oliver Cromwell is born in the Cambridgeshire town of Huntingdon to Robert and Elizabeth Cromwell. He is baptised on April 29th . 1610 1620 1630 1640 1650 Oliver Cromwell begins studying at Huntingdon Grammar school at the age of 8. Cromwell enters Sidney Sussex College at Cambridge University, which has a strong Puritan ethos. Cromwell leaves Sidney Sussex College after the tragic death of his father and therefore does not complete his studies. He goes to live with his mother in their family estate. Like many other locals, he faced severe financial struggles. This was mainly due to the high taxes he had to pay, many of which were used to decorate the kings court. This angered Cromwell. August 22nd - Cromwell marries Elizabeth Bourchier who has a wealthy merchant as a father. The marriage brings Cromwell into contact with rich London merchants and great Puritan peers. 1616 1617 1607 Cromwell becomes a member of Parliament for Huntingdon March - King Charles I dissolves parliament and imprisons eight parliamentary leaders who are questioning his will. Charles raises taxes called "ship money" pretending it will be used to fight pirates; but demands it inland as well as on the coast, he also takes people's goods even if they have no money. Many people are angry. 1628 1629 1633-35 Oliver has now turned Puritan (very strong Protestant) and has inherited a place and job from his uncle in Ely. 1636 1637-38 King Charles attempts and fails to force the Book of Common Prayer on Scotland. He also gathers an army to start the "Bishops war". Charles I summons Parliament, but after they refuse to grant his wish and give him money for the war, he dissolves it again.
November 3rd - Charles calls upon Parliament again for money, but it backfires as they declare "ship-tax" illegal, along with many other unpopular measures. An uprising in Ireland leads to Parliament and the King agreeing they need an army however, they do not trust each other to lead it.
The Grand Remonstrance, a list which states all the criticisms Parliament has about the king's actions over the years, is handed to the king. 1641 1641-42 Parliament suggests that they should appoint the commanders of the army, the King disagrees and tries to arrest 5 members of Parliament. He fails and became so unpopular in the process, he flees and London to set up court in York. 1642 Both Parliament and the King are finding ways to build an army legally, they succeed and the English Civil war starts on August 22nd. Oliver Cromwell leads Parliament to a victory at Marston Moor but it fails to crush the King's armies. Cromwell pushes Parliament for better commanders and better trained troops. 1644 1645 The New Model Army is created by parliament. It is a professional, trained, military unit. Commander-in-chief is General Fairfax. Oliver Cromwell is Lieutenant-General and is in charge of the cavalry. At the Battle of Naseby, the New Model Army inflicts a great defeat on the king's army. 1646 June 24th - At Oxford, the New Model Army beseige the Royalists who surrender ending the first Civil war. 1647 1648 1649 The Scots hand King Charles to the Parliamentarians, who imprison him in Holmby House in Northamptonshire where he plots the restoration of his power.
November, Charles flees to Isle of Wight and forms a pact with the Scots to begin the second civil war. The king rejects the many suggestions the Parliament give for peace. As a result Oliver Cromwell leads the New Model Army and crushes the Royalists in Wales and then the Scots. The war finally ends on August 28th. The Parliament have now lost all trust in the King and try him for treason, his is found guilty on the 27th and is beheaded on the 30th January. The Scots and Irish declare they intend to help Charles II to become king. Cromwell leads the New Model Army to Scotland after they declare Charles I's son is now King Charles II. Cromwell completely defeats the Scottish army in Dunbar. 1651 1653 1658 The Scots lead by Charles II slip out south while Cromwell is still in Scotland, and destroys them once more at the Battle of Worcester, the final battle in the civil war. Charles flees to Holland. Angered that Parliament are stopping reforms, Cromwell forcibly dissolves it.
December 16th - Cromwell reluctantly becomes Lord Protector. September 3rd - Oliver Cromwell dies at Whitehall, London. Probably because of malaria of blood-poisoning and following an infection. King Charles II is restored to the throne. Oliver Cromwell
The man who made
Parliament what it is today Why was Oliver Cromwell a good leader?

Cromwell lead with good tactics, strategies and motivation. He had an amazing knack for making his troops believe in themselves, he made them feel as if God was on their side so they created a very good fighting force. Interesting facts about Oliver Cromwell:

Oliver as a child had to look after his seven sisters and mother as his father died.
Cromwell worked as a farmer for many years and when elected for Parliament, he was the poorest man in the House of Commons.
He was a very outspoken MP and was keen for change.
He had nine children, seven of which lived into adulthood.
Oliver suffered from depression.
He disapproved of Christmas.
Although Oliver Cromwell signature was 3rd on King Charles death warrant, he admired the king and made sure everyone respected his grave. He supported his execution because he thought it would be best for his country. August - Cromwell leads an army to Ireland. At Drogheda and Wexford, Cromwell's troops slaughter the Royalist garrisons as well as civilians. What happened to Cromwell's head?

As revenge for killing his father, King Charles II dug up Cromwell and others responsible for Charles I death. The King ordered for them to be hung for a day and then put their heads on 20ft tall sticks and placed them in front of Westminster Hall as a deterrent. In 1685 a storm broke out resulting in the loss of Cromwell's head. It was found and went through a series of museums before being buried in Sidney Sussex College at Cambridge University. Hero or Villain?

Oliver Cromwell was thought by most Protestants to be a hero, Great Britain at this time was run by the Church of England. Protestants and Puritans feared that Britain will change as King Charles wife was a Catholic.
Oliver, however, was seen as a villain in Catholics eyes as they were treated well by Charles and were scared what would happen to them if they were lead by Puritans.
This debate is still ongoing today and everyone has different views.
In my opinion, I believe that Cromwell was a hero because he acted on what he thought was right, not always for himself but for others. I also think he made the right decisions for the people.
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