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French Revolution

The Early Revolution & the Terror
by

Luis Sierra

on 1 February 2018

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Transcript of French Revolution

1788-1794
The French Revolution: Reform and Terror
Agenda
Conclusion
Louis XVI called the Estates General to increase tax revenue

The crown was under tremendous pressure due to wars, debt, and price shocks

Estates General:
1: Nobility 2: Clergy 3: Everyone else
Estate: Each man's legal rights, taxes, and obligations was his estate

Louis XVI wanted to end the tremendous privilege of the wealthy and switch burdens he needed to call the Estates General to accomplish this change

The peasants suffered heavy tax burdens, poor harvests, and price increases
The context for the Revolution
The Enlightenment Ideals
Popular Revolts
The Revolution opened up new spaces

The Radical Republican Revolution closed them through centralization and violence

It divided France in many ways enabling class conflict and division

But it united it in other ways war and ideology and after the revolution we can speak of France a nation
The Enlightenment ideals: Liberty, Rights, and Legitimacy served as the platform to act against the privileges of the clergy, nobles, and monarchy

Economic Terms:
The end of government controls
Arbitrary taxation
Exemptions
The Estates Met in April-May 1789
The Estates consulted with the king and ministers about role

3rd Estate refused to vote as one body knowing they would be defeated by clergy and nobility

3rd Estate walked out and constituted itself as the National Assembly
Tennis Court Oath

Louis XVI asked the nobles and clergy to join the 3rd Estate

1st Stage of the revolution was moderate, peaceful, and led by moderate elements of the third estate

The National Assembly would face tremendous pressure and popular actions that would radicalize the revolution
Radicalization of the French Revolution
The Clubs
politicized common people
Jacobin
Massiac

Louis was a weak monarch and counterrevolutionary plots

War with Austria and Prussia
Radicals imprisoned Louis XVI

Aug. 10 1792:
"Second" French Revolution began

The Jacobins took over the National Assembly

Decided to have elections for the National Convention
governed 1792-1795
Sept. Declared the Republic
Louis XVI beheaded January 1793
Storming the Bastille July 1789
Electors of Paris organized a police force to patrol
Sought weapons from the Bastille
The Governor of the prison order men to open fire
killed 100
The crowd took revenge and stormed the Bastille

Peasant Revolts
Organized militias
They attacked manor houses burned records of dues

"October Days" of 1789
Paris-Market women angered by soaring prices
demanded the king answer for this and went to Versailles
Radicalization of the National Assembly
Fearful National Assembly made sweeping reforms
Eliminated Church Tithe
Abolished noble privileges
Sale of offices
King Louis XVI had to accept all the changes

Declaration of the Rights of Man

Revision of society:
Sovereignty with the people

Limits:
Active vs. Passive citizenship
Indirect vote
women

National Assembly:
Expropriated Church property
Church under dominion of the government
Abolished Guilds
Town privileges
National Convention
Abolished slavery, canceled compensation to nobles, expropriated property, repealed primogeniture, controlled prices, established a new calendar

The people continued to suffer price increases and shortages


War:
The war expanded to include: Holland, Britain, Spain
The French suffered severe defeats: 1791-1793

1793:
Reorganized the military into 14 armies
and revamped officer corps
1793-1794:
Drove the Prussians and Austrians back
1795:
Occupied Holland, Spain, Rhineland, Italy, Switzerland
Broke apart their enemies efforts
War would continue in various guise until 1815
The Terror 1793-1795
The French Revolution was, in its initial stages, a revision of society. It posited that the sovereignty lay with the people not the king, that all men* were equal before the law, and that rights were deemed natural not determined by birth status. The Revolution's radicalization destroyed many of these promises and it became autocratic, arbitrary, and violent. The revolution united the French people as "French" and divided them along lines of class, gender, and race.
Louis XVI
Estates General Seated 1788-89
Tennis Court Oath
Storming of the Bastille, 1789
The Execution of Louis Capet, Citizen
A new constitution based on universal male suffrage never took effect

Committee of Public Safety took power 12 men
The Revolution instead of becoming more democratic became more centralized and autocratic
Terror was the order of the day

Marat, Danton, Robespierre Jacobins

Maximilien Robespierre:
Lawyer
Committee of Public Safety
Ruthless
Followed "Will of the People"

Centralization, violence, suspension of liberties, and war dominated this period
Royalist Rebellions: Lyon, Bordeaux, Marseilles
Republicans: pillaged and destroyed
Peasants: suffered persecution

The Terror:
400,000 to 500,000
The Guillotine killed 16,000 people
Jean-Paul Marat
Georges Danton
Robespierre
The Death of Marat-David
A Depiction of the Three Estates
Documents
What are the limits of declaration of the rights of man?

What is de Gouges advocating?

Why does Haiti declare independence?

Ask your questions.
Full transcript