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First Nations: Pre-Confederation
Transcript of First Nations: Pre-Confederation
•Lived along the coast of what is the nowadays Maritimes Lifestyle •They were hunters, fishers, and gatherers
•They lived in small villages called clans
•There were specific territories for the clans to hunt and fish
•They lived in wigwams
•Deer and fish were important sources of food for the Mi’kmaq
•They used bows and arrows to hunt
•Used bones to make their tools
•Their clothing was made out of animal skin
•They used canoes for transportation because they were close to the water
•They had a trade system between the clans Religon •They believed that humans were put on the earth by Kisúlk
•They believed that they were equal to everything in nature
•They believed everything had a spirit so they treated everything with respect
•They only took what they needed Government Structure Grand council
7 district chiefs
•They had a consensus style of government The Government People •Each clan had a local leader called a sagamaw. they were chosen because they were a good hunter
•The district leader divided the land that each clan could hunt on
•Their leaders were chosen for their ability to reach an agreement among the people
•The council decided if they wanted war or peace it was up to them
•A female could be chief if her husband died and there were no suitable men in the family line Consensus •They discussed the issue until it was resolved which could take a very long time
•It required compromise from everyone not just one particular party Roles of Women •They were equal to men in the government
•They ensured their family had a good life
•They raised the children
•They took care of the home
•They could hunt small game for food and clothes
•They were allowed to voice their own opinion
•Female elders were come too for their input on any matter big or small Interesting Fact: They were the first Aboriginal group to make contact with the European explorers Interesting Fact: It was not unusual for people to reach the age of 100 because of their healthy and natural diet Loon and Crane: Leadership clans; responsible for providing governance Random Information •The Anishinabe lived in the forested country of northern and central Ontario and southern Manitoba
•The Europeans called them Ojibway
They called themselves Anishinabe meaning “the people”
•Eventually, some of the Anishinabe traveled westward to the plains Worldveiw •The Anishinabe tried to live their lives according to these seven values
1. Wisdom: Cherish knowledge
2. Love: know peace
3. Respect: Honor all of creation
4. Bravery: face all your foes
5. Honesty: Face a situation
6. Humility: Know yourself
7. Truth: know all these Cycle of life •The Anishinabe were hunters and gatherers but they had an additional food source that put them apart from the other First Nations
•Wild Rice which the Anishinabe called mamomin was a main role in their way of life Roles of Women •The Anishinabe believed in equality and balance. Men and women were equal in the annual cycle of work. They each had a specific set of jobs to do for the good of the community.
•The women had to look after the children and maintained the lodge. They hunted smaller animals such as rabbits, birds and porcupines
•They also harvested a variety of wild fruits, berries, nuts, roots and wild rice.
•They dried them out and stored them for the winter.
•Without the work of gathering and storing the community wouldn’t survive. Solving Problems •The Anishinabe lived in clans in birch bark lodges.
•Each village looked after its own affairs, but had contact with each other from Making Decisions • Each clan has a leader, who is chosen because he displayed courage, good character or skill in hunting
•The leaders in the Crane and Loon clan are responsible for making decisions
•Members of the Crane clan were leaders in matters outside of the community
•Members of the Loon clan members were leaders in matters within the community •Huron was the name that the French gave to the Wyandot tribe
•Huron in French means “shock of hair”
•Huron means “boars head”, “rough” and “boorish”
•Huron were enemies of the Iroquois Confederacy
•The competed with the Iroquois on fur trade
•Spoke the language of Wendat
•Before the 1600s the Huron numbered from 20 000 to 25 000
•Huron people believed that all animate and inanimate things had a spirit
•The most powerful spirit was the spirit of the sky controlling the wind and seasons
•They believed that their kids were the future of the tribe
•Huron people wore deerskin clothes
•Huron people lived in villages near water and forests
•Huron people hunted and fished to eat
•Women planted crops, cultivated them and processed them Wyandot Sources http://prezi.com/fcs2xb0b19mw/the-hurons/
http://www.nelson.com/albertasocialstudies/productinfo/gr6_9/documents/abss6ch4draft.pdf Clans •Clans were named for one of the nine air, water or land animals
•Each clan formed part of at least two nations and the three clans formed part of every nation.
•Peacemaker set up Iroquois society as matrilineal.
•Matrilineal meant clan members traced their family history and ancestors through their mothers.
•Members of the same clan were considering family, they always extended hospitality to each other, even if then come from different nations.
•Members from the same clan lived together in a longhouse. But did not marry each other.
Nations •There was five deferent nations founded in the Iroquois confederacy:
•Seneca: Older Brothers (Keepers of the Western Door)
•Cayuga: Younger Brothers
•Onondaga: (Keepers of the Council Fire)
•Oneida: Younger Brothers
•Mohawk: Older Brothers (Keepers of the Eastern Door)
•Later Tuscarora: Joined Iroquois Confederacy Grand Council The G/C met to discuss issues that affected the Iroquois Confederacy such as, peace treaties, trade agreements and decisions to go to war.
The G/C was made up of the hoyaneh from each nation in all there is 50 hoyaneh.
The Hoyaneh were chosen by the clan mothers. In order to be a good chief they had to be kind, caring, self-less, and look out for the better of his people at all times. If at any point the clan mothers felt this hasn't happened they clan mothers were able to replace them with a new chief.
Hoyaneh rarely ever speak at the grand council meetings.
Men and women always had a voice in decision making of the grand council.
Men’s and women’s council of the clans advise clan mothers on issues.
Women in The Iroquois Confederacy Women
Participates in women’s council which advised the clan mothers
Chose and advise the Hoyaneh
Had a strong influence on decisions
Men In The Iroquois Confederacy Participated in men’s council which advised in Clan mothers
Participated in decision making for their nation
Hoyaneh were chosen from among the men Tree Of Peace •The Iroquois confederacy united five, and eventually six nations.
•The peacemaker used the Tree of Peace to symbolize the peace established by the Confederacy.
•Eagle: Is at the top of the tree. The eagle can see far and warn the people of Confederacy of any danger.
•The Branches: Represent the protection of the nations under the Great law of peace.
•The weapon: Represent that Iroquois will not fight against each other.
•The roots: Represent peace and strength.
When It All Happened •Around 1142 is when Iroquois Confederacy found.
•1490’s Europeans begins exploring North America.
•1702 Tuscarora join Iroquois Confederacy.
•1776 United States founded.
•1867 Canada founded Confederation.