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rashidun caliphate sst
Transcript of rashidun caliphate sst
rulers of the rashidun caliphate
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The Rashidun Caliphate
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Melvin Kuruvilla Alex
The Rashidun Caliphate (632–661) is the collective term comprising the first four caliphs—the "Rightly Guided" or Rashidun caliphs—in Islamic history and was founded after Muhammad's death in 632 (year 11 AH in the Islamic calendar). At its height, the Caliphate controlled a vast empire from the Arabian Peninsula and the Levant, to the Caucasus in the north, North Africa from Egypt to present day Tunisia in the west, and the Iranian plateau to Central Asia in the east. It was the largest empire in history by land area up until that point.
Abu Bakr (632–634)
Abdullah ibn Abi Qhuhafah,was the first Muslim ruler after the Prophet Muhammad (632–634). While Sunnis regard him as his rightful successor (caliph), chosen by the people.
-Conquest of Sassanid Persian Empire
-Invasion of Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire
On 23 August 634, Abu Bakr fell sick and
did not recover due to his old age.
Abu Bakr Mosque
Sassanid and Byzantine Empire
Umar ibn Al-Khattāb (634–644)
Umar was a Muslim from the Banu Adi clan. He was a disciple of the Muslim prophet Muhammad and the second Caliph of Islam. He was great caliph of Islam and his life was inspiration for many Muslims
-Conquest of Syria
-Whole of the Sassanid Persian Empire
In 644, Umar was assassinated by Persians in response to the Muslim conquest of Persia.
Conquest of Syria
Uthman ibn Affan (644–656)
Uthman ibn Affan was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and the third of the Sunni Rashidun or "Rightly Guided Caliphs". Born into a prominent Meccan clan of the Quraysh tribe, he played a major role in early Islamic history, succeeding Umar ibn al-Khattab as caliph at age 65.
-Muslim conquest of Persia
He was attacked while in his house, although he did not defend himself out of fear of further trouble. He was killed while reading the Qur'an by Sudaan ibn Hamran
Ali ibn Abi Talib (656–661)
Ali ibn Abi Talib was the cousin and son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, ruling over the Islamic Caliphate from 656 to 661. A son of Abu Talib, Ali was also the first young male who accepted Islam.
- Battle of the Camel
-The Battle of Siffin
-The Battle of Nahrawan
On the 19th of Ramadan 40 AH, which would correspond to January 25/26, 661 CE, while praying in the Great Mosque of Kufa, Ali was attacked by the ibn Muljam. He was wounded by ibn Muljam's poison-coated sword while prostrating in the Fajr prayer.
battle of the camel
battle of siffin
battle of nahrawan
Bait-ul-Maal, (literally, The house of money) was the department that dealt with the revenues and all other economic matters of the state. In the time of Muhammad there was no permanent Bait-ul-Mal or public treasury. Whatever revenues or other amounts were received were distributed immediately. There were no salaries to be paid, and there was no state expenditure. Hence the need for the treasury at the public level was not felt.
The economic resources of the State were:
it the Islamic concept of luxury tax. It was taken from the Muslims in the amount of 2.5% of their dormant wealth to give to the poor.
-Ushr was a reciprocal 10% levy on agricultural land as well as merchandise imported from states that taxed the Muslims on their products.
It was a per capita tax imposed on able bodied non-Muslim men of military age since non-Muslims did not have to pay zakāt.
-Fay was the income from State land, whether an agricultural land or a meadow, or a land with any natural mineral reserves.
the booty captured on the occasion of war with the enemy.4/5 of the booty was distributed among the soldiers taking part in the war while 1/5 was credited to the state fund.
-Kharaj was a tax on agricultural land.
The acheivements achieved during the reign of the rashidite caliphs
-The collection of holy Quran in one book
-The expansion of islam outside the borders of
Arabia after the conquests of Iraq, Persia,
Damascus, and Egypt.
the expansion of islam
-Under the leadership of Saad Bin Abi Waqqas, the muslims defeated the Persians in the battle of Qadissiya. after the battle of Nahawand (A.H.21 the Persian Empire became a muslim state.
-In the lands of Al-Sham (Damascus), the Muslims conquered the Romans, and the battle of Yarmuk (A.H.15) enabled the Arabs to continue their conquest of Al Sham and spread Islam there. After that they conquered Egypt