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Socioemotional Development in Middle and Late Childhood

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Mira Jamal

on 31 October 2012

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Transcript of Socioemotional Development in Middle and Late Childhood

Outline Self-esteem: global evaluations of the self
Self-worth
Self-image Emotional
Development Socioemotional Development
in Middle and Late
Childhood Done By: Mira Jamal Emotional and Personality Development
Families
Peers Developmental Changes: The Self © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved The Development of Self Understanding

Ages 8-11:
Psychological characteristics
eg. nice, helpful, dumb

Define one’s “self” with internal characteristics or personality traits.

Social aspects of the self
e.g. Religion, friends, Girl scouts

Social comparison increases

Understanding Others

Perspective taking
Prosocial vs. Antisocial behavior


Skeptical of others’ claims (10-11 years-old) The Self Thank you for Listening! QUESTION TIME Self- Esteem &
Self Concept Self Esteem-
Perception that does not always match reality High Self- Esteem Low Self-Esteem Can be an accurate perception of self-worth, or arrogant A distorted, pathological insecurity or inferiority Increasing Children's Self-Esteem Identify the causes of low self-esteem
Provide emotional support and social approval
Help children achieve
Help children cope The Self Self Regulation Industry Versus Inferiority
(Erik Erikson) Self Efficacy Belief that one can master a situation and produce favorable outcomes "I can" vs. "I can't" Deliberate efforts to manage one’s behavior, emotions, and thoughts, leading to increased social competence and achievement High self control= lower levels of deviant behaviour Industry: children become interested in how things work

Inferiority: parents who see their children’s efforts as mischief may encourage inferiority Improved emotional understanding
Understanding that more than one emotion can be experienced in a particular situation
Awareness of the events leading to emotional reactions
Ability to suppress or conceal negative emotional reactions
Use of self-initiated strategies for redirecting feelings
A capacity for genuine empathy Older children generate more coping alternatives to stressful situations with cognitive coping strategies... Coping with Stress By age 10: use cognitive strategies to cop with stress Gender Gender Stereotypes Gender Similarities and
Differences Gender-Role Classification Gender in Context Broad categories that reflect general impressions and beliefs about males and females Physical development
Cognitive development
Socioemotional development On Average:
Men grow 10% taller
Females have longer life expectancy Females have better verbal skills
Males are better at visuospatial skills Boys are more physically aggressive
Girls are more verbally aggressive
Girls express emotions Individuals can have both masculine and feminine traits
Androgyny – presence of positive masculine and feminine traits in the same person
Androgynous individuals are more flexible, competent, and mentally healthy Traits people display may vary with the situation

e.g. females may help with personal problems.
Men will help if involves danger Families Parents manage children’s opportunities, monitor behavior, and initiate social contact

Important to maintain a structured and organized family environment Unique tasks:
Define the marriage, renegotiate the biological parent-child relationship, and establish stepparent-stepchild and stepsibling relationships.

More than 75% of adolescents describe their relationships with stepparents as “close” or “very close”

Relationships usually better with custodial parents than with stepparents Developmental Changes in parent-child relationships Parents spend less time with children during middle and late childhood
Parents support and stimulate children’s academic achievement and out-of-school activities
Parents use less physical forms of punishment as children age Parents as Managers Stepfamilies Friends Developmental
Changes Reciprocity becomes increasingly important in peer interchanges during elementary school
Size of peer group increases
Peer interaction is less closely supervised by adults
Children’s preference for same-sex peer groups increases Peer Status Popular Children: bf, rarely disliked
AverageChildren: + and - nominations
NeglectedChildren: not bf but not disliked
RejectedChildren: not bf and disliked
Controversial Children: someone bf and disliked Social Cognition
Thoughts about social matters
Important for understanding peer relationships 5 steps in processing social information (Dodge)
1. Decode social cues
2. Interpret
3. Search for a response
4. Select an optimal response
5. Enact Bullying Verbal or physical behavior intended to disturb someone less powerful
Boys and younger middle school students are most likely to be affected Outcomes of bullying:
Depression
Suicidal ideation
Attempted suicide
Health problems Friends Typically characterized by similarity Serve six functions:
Companionship
Stimulation
Physical support
Ego support
Social comparison
Affection and intimacy The Self Self-concept: domain-specific evaluations of the self
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