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History of the Automobile

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Rachel Hanson

on 28 April 2011

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Transcript of History of the Automobile

Transportation Team:

Ryan Arsenault
Jill Bolstad
Emily Croston
Paul Currier
Rachel Hanson
Lucas Grimsrud
Katie McMillan
Jared Newman The Human Love For The Car http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GhA-TGkS64g The Automobile
Learning From The Past,
To Create The Future Topic Of The Automobile Automobile:
A road vehicle, typically with four wheels, powered by
an internal combustion engine or electric motor
and able to carry a small number of people We will be diving into the origin of the car, making our way through the history of the automobile, looking at the present and what the future holds in store for our beloved automobiles.
Most if not all of us have a car that we can call our own. Some of us may take our car for granted and just drive to and from school or work. Others of us may treat it like a family member, pampering it and giving it a name. Both types of people always have something to learn about automobiles. Whether you drive a Honda or Ferrari, they all came from the same start and even though they can seem worlds apart today, they are all in the same family of transportation. The various technologies that have gone into designing and building the automobile have been almost infinite over time. Yet new technologies are being thought of and put into practice every year. All of us have a lot to learn from looking at the past and will be very intrigued at looking at current and future technologies that await the automobile industry. Why Research The Automobile? Early History of the Automobile Late 18th Century through 1950
The first self-propelled, steam-powered vehicle was actually a military tractor invented by a French engineer, Nicolas Joseph Cugnot, in 1769. It could haul army artillery at speeds up to 2.5 miles per hour, and had to stop every ten to fifteen minutes to build up steam power. The following year, Cugnot invented a type of steam-powered tricycle that carried up to four people. He is also thought to be the first person ever to get into a car accident, when one of his vehicles hit a stone wall.

Automobiles have come a long way, from the first self-propelled steam-powered vehicle back in 1769, to the first gas-powered vehicle in 1885, to the introduction of fuel injection motors in 1966, to the development of the Hybrid and Electric vehicles known today. The transformation of the car has been amazing. What was once just four wheels and an engine can now suffice as a portable home. Cars have developed into a luxurious vehicle. With numerous safety features, computers integrated into the design, spacious designs, and efficient ways of transportation.

The production of the car strives to be better than the last. Always upgrading, always integrating. The developers are looking for ways to make the car even more efficient and less harmful to the environment. Over the past two hundred and forty years the car has developed from this gas guzzling emission-polluting vehicle to one that relies on alternative fuel, and produces none, to little carbon emissions. Just think what the next two hundred and forty years will do to the development of the automobile. There have been many concepts dealing with technology covered throughout this class. Luckily, the relatively long history of personal automobiles, as well as their current immense popularity, allows for most, if not all, of these concepts to be discussed in relation to the personal automobile. One of the most obvious of the course concepts that relates to personal automobiles is how much they are relied upon by people every day. Over 150 years ago inventors started working on the first gas engine, since then personal automobiles have become widespread and now it is not uncommon for a household to own multiple cars. Course Concepts everyday technology Combustion engine
Anti-lock brakes
Safety glass
Windshield wipers
Fuel injection
Personal automobiles are also built upon many other technologies that come together to create a whole. Various technologies such as these are required in order for vehicles to be as efficient and safe as possible. The reliance that people have developed on personal automobiles has created a potentially dangerous situation. Though alternatives exist in some cases, there are many problems that would come up should personal transportation be crippled due to something such as gas prices. People's reliance on, and unwillingness to give up personal transportation also creates problems in the area of air pollution. The pollution caused by person automobile emissions is included in another of the class's concepts. Unintended consequences can result from many different types of technology, however, the deep infiltration of personal automobiles in countries such as the United States compounds the negative effects which are produced by this technology. Unintended Consequences The personal automobile was meant to make travel easier for everybody, and it has largely succeeded in doing this, but there are many negative effects as well. Air pollution
Noise pollution
Spreading of weeds and other pests
Destruction of land for roadways
Countries with oil dependencies One of the biggest unintended consequences has to do with the majority of cars requiring gasoline to function. Not only does burning gasoline contribute to air pollution, but some countries that have access to automobiles do not have a ready source of energy, in this case oil or refineries, to supply people with. This can lead to countries being dependent on other countries for energy. This dependency that can develop between countries is an example of inequality of access. If an underdeveloped country wishes to implement an infrastructure for transportation they need access not only to automobiles but to the fuel for them as well. An underdeveloped country that develops such a dependency on another country for oil can cripple its own development as a nation. Inequality of Access The risk of accidents occurring is another concept that is closely connected with the personal automobile. There are two main reasons why these two areas are so closely bound together. First, automobiles are highly complex in design and function. There are many, many parts which make up an automobile and many of these parts are very tightly connected, in that they need to work together to function. Pull out a spark plug or remove a fuel line and an automobile won't be going anywhere. Risk & Accidents The second, and possibly most influential, reason that accidents will always be present in personal automobiles is the personal aspect. Automobiles are driven by people, and people make mistakes and bad decisions. Looking at the newest safety advances in personal automobiles shows how car designers are trying to make cars safer by removing human error. Cars will tell you where to go, they'll turn on your windshield wipers, they'll even parallel park for you. While this helps avoid human mistakes, it also creates an even more complex system with more possible malfunctions.
Numerous steam-powered vehicles were invented and patented around the world over the next century.

The Gasoline powered engine had been invented in Europe by 1860. Karl Benz introduced first gas powered, internal combustion auto in Europe in 1885, and received a patent for it the following year. It had three wheels and carried two passengers. Benz was able to get his car to travel at about 65 miles initially. Benz built his first four wheeled car in 1891, and by 1900, his company was the largest maker of automobiles in the world. In 1886, Gottlieb Daimler built the world’s first four-wheeled motor vehicle, and in 1889, Gottlieb Daimler improved on the internal combustion engine by building one with a four stroke engine, mushroom shaped valves, and v shaped cylinders. In 1893, the Duryea brothers built their own version of the car. It had a one cylinder engine, a three speed transmission, and could go about 7.5 miles per hour. The Duryeas got the car the go about 200 feet before it was stopped by a mound of dirt. Two years later, they formed the Duryea Motor Company. One year after that, they made the first attempt at mass producing the automobile. The cost at the time ($1,000 to $2,000) was too much for most Americans to afford. Henry Ford built his first “horseless carriage” in 1896. He sold it finance his work on an improved model. In 1903, Ford incorporated his Ford Motor Company, with the intention of building cars that would be financially accessible to everyone. By 1908, his Model T was selling for $950. Throughout the Model T’s 19 years in production, nearly 15,500,000 units were sold and the price was as low as $250.

By 1914, Ford’s Michigan plant could turn out a complete chassis in 93 minutes, thanks to his innovative use of the assembly line. Eventually, Ford’s mass-production techniques allowed new Model T to be made every 24 seconds. During the 1920’s, cars began to include features such as four wheeled brakes, safety glass in the windows, and pneumatic tires. In spite of tough economic times, the 1930’s still brought new technology to the auto world. Some advances were the automatic transmission as well as a variety of power engines. Focus was primarily on mechanical serviceability rather than cosmetic appeal.
The early 1940’s saw the advent of the luxury car. The Delahaye 135 convertible, for example, could reach speeds of 95 miles per hour. During the 1940’s Chrysler also introduced a safety rim, designed to keep the tire on in case of a blowout. Chrysler also introduced two speed electric windshield wipers.

World War II caused automobile production for civilian consumers to stop completely in 1942; it did not commence again until 1946. Sources
http://www.anythingaboutcars.com/1940scars.html

http://www.chevroncars.com/learn/cars/history-cars

http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aacarsassemblya.htm

http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aacarsgasa.htm

http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blbenz.htm

http://inventors.about.com/od/fstartinventors/a/HenryFord.htm

http://www.squidoo.com/1920cars

http://www.thefinertimes.com/The-1930s/1930s-cars-great-innovation-despite-tough-times.html Benz Patent-Motorwagen
Photographer: pilot_micha
Title: Benz Patent-Motorwagen
Taken: October 12, 2010
Site Taken:http://www.flickr.com/photos/pilot_michael/5101727767/

1886 Daimler Motor Carriage
Photographer: Chris Campbell
Title: 1886 Daimler Motor Carriage
Taken: January 23, 2009
Site Taken: http://www.flickr.com/photos/cjcam/3223189767/

1893 Duryea Motor Wagon
Photographer: Richard Spiegelman
Title: 1893 Duryea Motor Wagon replica
Taken: June 23, 1996
Site Taken: http://www.flickr.com/photos/cjcam/3223189767/

1911 Model T Ford
Photographer: Peter Barker
Title: Model T Ford Vintage Cars - 1911
Taken: July 19, 2009
Site Taken: http://www.flickr.com/photos/cjcam/3223189767/ 1927 Chevrolet Capital Series AA Sedan
Photographer: sv1ambo
Title: 1927 Chevrolet Capital Series AA Sedan
Taken: January 16, 2011
Site Taken:http://www.flickr.com/photos/50415738@N04/5407066286/in/photostream/

1935 McLaughlin-Buick Club Sedan
Photographer: Martin Alford
Title: 1935 McLaughlin-Buick Club Sedan
Taken: May 30, 2010
Site Taken: http://www.flickr.com/photos/albertsbite/5050669587/

1945 Ford Pickup
Photographer: Fredrick Childers
Title: 1945 Ford Pickup
Taken: July 11, 2010
Site Taken: http://www.flickr.com/photos/fredsredt/4784109460/
http://www.yourdiscovery.com/cars/timeline/

http://www.greatachievements.org/?id=3880

http://www.xtimeline.com/timeline/History-of-the-Automobile

http://www.autozine.org/Misc/Article/tech_history/tech_history.htm Personal Automobiles 1950s to Today In the postwar era, the automobile evolves from a luxury to a household appliance. Highways are expanded and city and neighborhood planning is based around car travel.


1951- Airbag is invented, illustrating a growing concern for driver safet
Cars are large in scale, economical opulence is expressed in the automobile. Fuel prices are low so large displacement gasoline engines are commonplace, eight cylinders rule the road.
Cars are made of heavy materials, again due to low cost and abundance. Steel is common for chassis and body panels.
Style rises, during World War II cars were utilitarian because of diverted resources, that is labor and materials. More expression becomes present in automobile design. The Volkswagen Beetle remains popular in postwar times, redefining the small car market in the US.
Cruise control is invented by a blind man, sensing that cars travel at uneven speeds along the Pennsylvania Turnpike. Unpopular in its early years, cruise control is now standard equipment on over 70 percent of automobiles. The era of the pony car, American cars are designed to recapture the domestic market. Foreign cars are becoming more popular in the US, despite certain quality issues. Japan appears as an automobile manufacturing powerhouse.

In response to foreign competition, US automakers promote performance to regain the market. Cars such as the Camaro, Mustang, and Charger capture the American market and spirit.

Displacement is the name of the game, even larger gasoline engines are introduced, V-8s reign supreme.

Fuel Injection is introduced, replacing the dated carburetor these new systems more carefully monitor the mixture of fuel and air into the combustion chamber which leads to more efficient engines. (1966) 1950's 1960's Efforts emerge to reduce harmful emissions, as stated previously fuel injection leads to less unburnt fuel in car exhaust. Positive Crankcase Ventilation is also introduced, which recirculates gases back into the engine cylinders for further combustion.

The first SUV (Sport Utility Vehicle) enters the fray, expanding the diversity of automobile types available to the public.

Corporate consolidation occurs, even niche marques like Ferrari and Maserati are enveloped by larger corporations. By the end of the decade the number of automobile makers is drastically reduced. A time defined by the Arab Oil Embargo, gas prices soared and reprioritized what was desired in a car to the American public. Safety become a more important issue in the automobile industry.

In response to the Arab Oil Embargo (1973), Japanese automakers gained popularity for their smaller and more fuel efficient counterparts to large, ultimately inefficient domestic offerings.

Airbags become standard for the driver, and passenger airbags begin to show up in the market.

Ironically in the years of the Embargo, Cadillac and Lincoln saw record sales - automakers typically characterized by large and luxurious automobiles. In 1978 safe stopping distances decreased with the development of anti-lock brakes (ABS) by German manufacturer Bosch. First available in Mercedes-Benz vehicles, this system utilizes a pump that magnifies the pressure applied to the brake pedal and modulates the brake calipers many times per second to avoid lock up. This allows the driver to maintain steering control and drastically reduce stopping distance.

Small performance cars from BMW, Toyota, and Nissan replace the large muscle cars of the 1960s because of their relatively more efficient size and engines (typically six cylinder configurations). This decade is characterized by the explosion of automobile technology. Many new safety features are offered and electronics become an inseparable part of the automobile.

Computers start to show up in cars, both visible and unseen. Digital gauges and climate controls convey the idea of computer control to the consumer, these were often a novelty.
“Just in time” delivery methods are promoted by the Japanese, this model of quick delivery auto parts to dealers and manufacturers reduced warehouse costs and streamlined the industry.
Standardization and platform sharing became popular, parts and components were shared throughout an automakers offerings, reducing cost and manufacture time. 1970's 1980's 1990's 2000's Efficiency is on the rise, diesel powered passenger cars gain popularity (diesel was usually reserved for heavy trucks) as well as turbocharging technology. Typically applied to four cylinder engines, turbochargers allowed these engines to achieve power outputs comparable to larger displacement engines while still yielding decent gas mileage.

Lighter materials begin to appear in the industry, aluminum is used in body panels as well as engine architecture. Plastics enter into interior treatments.

Computer-aided design creates more efficient vehicle shapes. Less wind resistance and better material usage are the results. Automobile technology continues to emerge as well as improved safety. For the first time alternative fuel sources are encouraged and widely sought after – setting the tone for the new millennium.

In 1992 the passage of the federal Energy Policy Act encourages alternative-fuel vehicles. These include automobiles run with mixtures of alcohol and gasoline, natural gas, or by some combination of conventional fuel and battery power.

Automatic stability control is introduced (1997), this innovation adjusts power through a differential to make the car more controllable in emergency maneuvering.

Front-wheel and all-wheel drive is prominent, typically cars were rear-wheel drive to this point. Successful all-wheel drive was brought to market in the 1980s and provided better traction in adverse conditions. Technologies like turbocharging and supercharging are further developed, leading to more efficient engines. The main objective was for weight reduction.

Variable valve timing and variable intake manifolds contributed to the ever-present goal of fuel efficiency. These technologies controlled air flow into the engine to get more complete combustion and better drive-ability.

Developments in suspension included magnetically adjusted shocks, charged particles of hydraulic fluid realign to absorb road imperfections leading to a softer and more composed ride. Alternative fuels are the name of the game, coupled with new materials cars are lighter, safer, and ultimately more efficient.

Sound-deadening is perfected, high density insulation makes cars more isolated from the road.

Direct fuel and diesel injection is introduced, fuel is pushed directly into the combustion chamber yielding higher power outputs from smaller engines.

Cutting edge materials are used in chassis components as well as body panels, carbon fiber and high-strength plastics replace heavy steel. Ceramics are brought into brake systems, prolonging component life and further reducing stopping distance.

On-board electronics are common, integrated phone systems and global positioning (GPS) are standard on many models.

Personal expression drives automobile styling and the aftermarket part industry. With rising gas prices we are seeing a major trend in energy efficient vehicles. These include: hybrid vehicles, electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles. FUTURE OF CARS-TECHNOLOGIES OF THE FUTURE Hybrid Vehicles Hybrid vehicles combine the benefits of gasoline engines and electric motors. The cars typically get 45-50 mpg.

The vehicles save energy by using the following methods:

Regenerative Braking- The electric motor applies resistance to the drivetrain which causes wheels to slowdown. The energy from the wheels (which is usually lose during coasting and braking) is stored in the battery for later use by the electric motor.

Electric Motor Drive/Assist- The electric motor helps save energy in in high energy consuming situations such as: hill climbing, passing, and accelerating. These are areas where gas engines are least efficient.

Automatic Start/Shutoff- The vehicles automatically shutoff when coming to a stop, and start when the accelerator in pressed, further saving energy that is often wasted. 1997-Toyota Prius (first hybrid vehicle) released in Japan with sales of 18,000

1997-1999 A selection of electric vehicles released in California to little interest.

1999- Honda Insight released as first hybrid mass-market vehicle in U.S.

2000-Toyota Prius released in U.S. First four-door hybrid.

2002- Honda Civic Hybrid released, second commercially available in U.S.

2004- Toyota Prius wins Car of the Year Award. Demand jumps from 36,000-47,000.

2010-Toyota Prius becomes best-selling hybrid vehicle

Fun Fact: The first electric carriage was invented by Robert Anderson in 1839! Electric vehicles are ran by electric motors which are powered through rechargeable battery packs.

These vehicles are energy efficient in that they convert 75 % of the chemical energy from batteries, as opposed to 20% in gasoline.

Electric vehicles emit few pollutants.

Are quieter and require less maintenance than gas-powered engines.

Vehicles are charged through plug-ins and outlets found within the vehicle. Electric Vehicles Smart Car The smart car in arguably the most revolutionary electric vehicle on the market today. The car is currently available in four designs. The pure coupe, passion coupe, passion cabriolet, and the electric drive ranging from $10,000-$20,000. The car is completely electric and is powered through plug in charging. The car can get up to 94 mpg and at full charge can run for 2-4 hours. It is noted for its environmentality and its unique size and structure. A fuel-cell vehicle is ran by a battery much like other electric vehicles. However, instead of the batteries being charged, the fuel cell is powered hydrogen.

The most common type of fuel cell used in vehicles in the PEM (polymer electrolyte membrane). In this, a electrolyte membrane is sandwiched between a negative and positive electrode. Hydrogen molecules travel through the membrane to the positive electrode while the membrane strips electrons off the hydrogen molecules. The electrons then travel through an external circuit to recombine with other hydrogen ions near the positive electrode. Here the hydrogen ions, electrons, and oxygen combine to make water which helps to power the vehicle.

Fuel-Cell vehicles can be powered by pure hydrogen gas stored within the vehicle or through secondary fuel such as methanol, ethanol, or natural gas. Fuel-Cell Vehicles 2011 Smart Car ED- Behind the Scenes. 2011. 10 April, 2011.http://www.smartcarpedia.org/2011-smart-car-ed-behind-the-scenes


Electric Vehicles. 8 April, 2011. 10 April, 2011. http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/evtech.shtml


History of Hybrid Vehicles. 27 March, 2006. 10 April, 2011. http://www.hybridcars.com/history/history-of-hybrid-vehicles.html


How Hybrids Work.8 April 2011. 10 April, 2011. http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/hybridtech.shtml


Media Newsroom. 2011. 10 April, 2011. http://media.daimler.com/dcmedia-smartusa


Smart fortwo ed Rated at 87 Miles Per Gallon. 26 March, 2011. 10 April, 2011. http://electriccarsreport.com/2011/03/smart-fortwo-ed-rated-at-87-miles-per-gallon/


U.S. Dept. of Energy. What is a fuel-cell vehicle? 28 Jan, 2011. 10 April, 2011. http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/vehicles/fuel_cell_what_is.html















Credits

Introduction by Ryan Arsenault

Early History of Cars (First Invented to 1940’s) by Emily Croston

Later 20th Century History of Cars (1950’s to 2000’s) by Lucas Grimsrud

Hybrids and New Technologies by Katie McMillan

Tying in Course Concepts by Jared Newman

Conclusion and Credits by Jill Bolstad

Revising, Editing, and Putting Together Final Project by Rachel Hanson

Locating and Incorporating Images by Paul Currier Conclusion
Full transcript