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In the 1800's, famine was commonplace in Ireland. However, w
Transcript of In the 1800's, famine was commonplace in Ireland. However, w
In the 1800's, famine was commonplace in Ireland. However, what is now known as the Great Famine was the worst, resulting in 2 million people leaving or dieing in Ireland
The Great Famine
The causes of the The Famine can be traced to absentee British landlords. These landlords were so concerned about profits that the very crops the Irish needed to survive on were exported, and the lands over-farmed.
The population fell by nearly 25%, roughly 1 million dead and 1 million emigrated
Over 750,000 people immigrated to America during and in the aftermath of The Famine
Lasting effects on the Irish people and the Irish Diaspora were enough to lay down new hatred for the British and, more directly, the British in Ireland
The amount of deaths and the lack of aid were to be used as future justification for military, political, and terrorist events against England
The 1798 Rising
Lead by Wolfetone, it was an attempted invasion of Ireland by the French with Irish support
Failed coup in Ireland, it planted common seeds of discontent and the "Fenian" movement
The Irish Volunteers was an organization that fought for Irish independence. It started as educated men who formed societies and debates, but it expanded to become a paramilitary organization that trained and obtained weapons
Revolution and Civil War
In 1645, Oliver Cromwell invaded Ireland and had entire towns massacared because they were unloyal
British in Ireland
In 1171, the Normans invaded Ireland and incorporated it into their empire. The Normans' goal was to conform the Irish to their language and culture, but this backfired and most of the Normans breed with the Irish.
By the 1600's many Protestant Scottish and English landowners had come and became running large plantations. At this point over 85% of Ireland was owned by landlords.
A set of anti- Catholic laws that was written to limit the ability of Irish Catholic to hold land, weapons, and other property. These laws were greatly unpopular and destroyed the land owning class in Ireland.
Acts of the Union 1800
This bill legally declared Scotland, Ireland, Wales, and England to be part of Great Britain. This was an outrage to the Irish, who shared neighter the same religion or political views.
On Easter Sunday, 1916, a group of Irish volunteers in Dublin seized the Dublin Post Office in hope of starting a wide spread revolution. It was lead by Patrick Pearce and Michael Collins. Although it failed, the execution of the leaders was seen as a rally point of the Irish.
In 1920's, Ireland was a battle ground between the I.R.A.(Irish Republican Army) and British forces mainly in southern Ireland. At first the I.R.A. was defeated in open battles, but it reverted to guerilla warfare.
By using light infantry tactics, the I.R.A. defeated the better armed British. They signed a treaty, but the I.R.A. did not agree and civil war erupted. The two forces were the anti- treaty I.R.A. and the British backed pro- treeaty forces. This lead to the defeat and the splintering of I.R.A. forces anf they turned more to terrorism when Ireland became a Free State.
Between 1960- 1998 a conflict between the southern and northern Irish about nationalism, known as the Troubles occured in northern Ireland. It pitted the I.R.A. against professional British soldiers and other terrorist organization. It was a brutal conflict and has seen some unofficial resurgance in later years.
Was a continuation of the Irish revolutionary war. I.R.A. wanted the British out of all Ireland, while the pro-treaty forces wanted to remain part of Great Britian. Consisted of many bobmin campaigns that results in tens of thousands of civilian dead.
Started with the I.R.A. striking at important military and economic centers in Northern Ireland. They opperated in groups of 4-8 and used bombings or hit-and-run tactics to destroy targets and kill soldiers or spies. This caused many causualties and angered the pro-treaty forces.
Pro Treaty forces and British units launched a counter attack and bombed or killed people or building with I.R.A. connections. Police units opened fire on protesters Easter Sunday in 1972 and provided ammunition for further I.R.A. attacks
The Conflict ended with the Good Friday agreement which was an agreed upon treaty that has been upheld since its signing in 1998. The body count is estimated to be over 10,000 dead and 70,000 wounded or missing. over 60,000 of these were innocent civilians caught in bombing.