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Period of Re-Orientation
Transcript of Period of Re-Orientation
Period of Re-Orientation
A group of young filipinos
-product of the universities and wealthy families
-decided to use their pens
-most were put in exile
Long before the Spaniards landed on Philippine shores, our ancestors already had their own literature written in
varying from legends, epic, riddles, sayings, folksongs, etc.
During the Spanish
period, ancient writings were prohibited, and thus,
in the belief that they were "works of the devil".
The only records that remained were passed on by
word of mouth.
3 kinds of writers
August 13, 1898
-American soldiers came to supposedly liberate the Filipinos from the clutches of the Spanish conquerors -
BATTLE OF MANILA
-English was at first taught as a subject as the Spanish system of education was allowed to continue.
-English became the
Medium of Instruction
in all Philippine Schools.
-The Philippine Normal School was founded to train Filipino teachers to take charge of elementary education.
-The University of the Philippines was established to train young Filipinos for tasks in the colonial bureaucracy
The first attempts in English were in two periodicals of this time:
-founded in Manila by Rafael Palma in 1901
-Philippines Free Press:
-established in Manila in 1905 by R. McCullough Dick & D. Theo Rogers.
-written by Justo Juliano
-My Mother and his Air Castles
-written by Jan F. Salazar's
-To My Lady in Laoag
-by Proceso Sebastian
-La Punta de Salto(The Place of Origin)
The Apprenticeship Period
In 1900 English became the official medium of instruction in Philippine schools
The period of 1910 to 1935 is generally called the period of apprenticeship or imitation
The Filipino writers imitated American and English writers
-The University of the Philippines was founded in
-It became the center of the literary effort. In September 1910, the first issue of the UP Folio came off the press
-This publication was recognized as embodiment of the early attempts of Filipinos at self-expression in English
In 1920 the Philippine Herald, the first Filipino daily in English, was founded
It paid for literary work it published and thus gave a financial reward to writers in English, especially in the short story
-In 1927 the UP writers club was founded and began publishing the Literary Apprentice, which became
the most prestigious college literary publication in
-In 1927 the Free Press published the first anthology of Philippine short stories written in English
-The short stories during this period were either romantic tales of the past with legendary figures or were imitations of plots and themes from American and other foreign sources
The most significant short story produced during this period was “Dead Stars” by Paz Marquez-Benitez
The poetry of the apprenticeship period was dominated by sentimental love lyrics
The first notable collection of Philippine essays in English, “Thinking of Ourselves,” compiled and edited by Vicente M. Hilario and Eliseo M. Quirino, appeared in 1924
The essays dealt with Philippine traditions and
history, religion, philosophy, ethics, literature and the arts, politics and government, and other significant matters bearing on Philippine culture
The play produced during this period was mostly highly emotional rather than emotional experiences
Period of Self - Discovery
Noteworthy names in this field include Marcelo de Gracia Concepcion, Jose Garcia Villa, Angela
Manalang Gloria, Abelardo Subido, Trinidad
Tarrosa Subido and Rafael Zulueta da Costa.
SHORT STORY (1925-1941)
Probably because of the incentives provided by publications like the Philippine Free Press, The
Graphic, The Philippine Magazine and college publications like the UP Literary Apprentice, poetry and the short story flourished during these times.
Characteristics of the short stories during these
There were still remnants of Spanish influence in the use of expressions that were florid, sentimental, exaggerated and bombastic. The influence of the Western culture also was already evident.
ESSAYS AND OTHER PROSE STYLES (1925-1941)
Essays during this period improved with the years in quality and quantity, in content, subject and style. Essayists like Carlos P. Romulo became even more eminent editorial writers
The notable writers of essays during this period
a. Political, social reflective essays: Through their newspaper columns the following became very popular: Federico Mangahas, Salvador P. Lopez,
Pura S. Castrence, Vicente Albano Pacis, Ariston Estrada and Jose A. Lansang
b. Critical essays were espoused by Salvador P.
Lopez, I.V. Mallari, Ignacio Manlapaz, Jose Garcia
Villa, Arturo B. Rotor, and Leopoldo Y. Yabes. An example of this is Maximo V. Soliven’s THEY
CALLED IT BROTHERHOOD.
c. Personal or Familiar essays were written by F.B. Icasiano (Mang Kiko), Alfredo E. Litiatco, Solomon
V. Arnaldo, Amando G. Dayrit and Consuelo Gar (Catuca)
During the Japanese Occupation, when Tagalog
was favored by the Japanese military authority,
writing in English was consigned to limbo
It picked up after the war, however, with a fervor
and drive for excellence that continue to this day. Stevan Javellana’s "Without Seeing the Dawn"
(1947), the first postwar novel in English, was published in the United States
In 1946, the Barangay Writers Project was
founded to help publish books in English
In 1946, the Barangay Writers Project was
founded to help publish books in English
Among the writers who came into their own during this time were: Nick Joaquin, NVM Gonzalez, Francisco Arcellana, Carlos Bulosan, F. Sionil Jose, Ricaredo Demetillo, Kerima Polotan Tuvera, Carlos Angeles, Edilberto K. Tiempo, Amador Daguio, Estrella Alfon, Alejandrino Hufana, Gregorio Brillantes, Bienvenido Santos, Dominador Ilio, T.D. Agcaoili, Alejandro R. Roces, Sinai C. Hamada, Linda Ty-Casper, Virginia Moreno, Luis Dato, Gilda Cordero-Fernando, Abelardo and Tarrosa Subido, Manuel A. Viray, Vicente Rivera Jr., and Oscar de Zuñiga, among many others.
Fresh from studies in American universities, usually as Fulbright or Rockefeller scholars, a number of these writers introduced New Criticism to the country and applied its tenets in literature classes and writing workshops
In this way were born the Silliman Writers Summer Workshop (started in 1962 by Edilberto K. Tiempo and Edith L. Tiempo) and the U.P. Writers Summer Workshop (started in 1965 by the Department of English at the U.P.). To this day, these workshops help discover writing talents and develop them in their craft
The Rebirth of Freedom
After 300 years of passivity under Spanish rule,
the Filipino spirit reawakened when the 3 priests Gomez, Burgos and Zamora were guillotined
without sufficient evidence of guilt
This occurred on the 17 th of February
The Spaniards were unable to suppress
the tide of rebellion among the Filipinos
The once religious spirit transformed itself
into one of nationalism and the Filipinos
demanded changes in the government and in
The Propaganda Movement (1872-1896) This movement was spearheaded mostly by the intellectual middle-class like Jose Rizal, Marcelo del Pilar; Graciano Lopez Jaena, Antonio Luna, Mariano Ponce, Jose Ma. Panganiban, and Pedro Paterno
The objectives of this movement were to seek reforms and changes like the following:
1. To get equal treatment for the Filipinos and the Spaniards under the law.
2. To make the Philippines a colony of Spain.
3. To restore Filipino representation in the Spanish Cortes.
4. To Filipinize the parishes. 5. To give the Filipinos freedom of speech, of the press, assembly and for redress of grievances.
DR. JOSE P. RIZAL Jose Protacio Rizal
Mercado Alonzo y Realonda was born on
June 19, 1861 at Calamba, Laguna
NOLI ME TANGERE. This was the novel that gave spirit to the propaganda movement and paved the way to the revolution against Spain
EL FILIBUSTERISMO. This is a sequel to the NOLI. While the NOLI exposed the evils in society, the FILI exposed those in the government and in the church
MI ULTIMO ADIOS (My Last Farewell). This was a poem by Rizal while he was incarcerated at Fort Santiago and is one that can compare favorably with the best in the world
SOBRE LA INDOLENCIA DE LOS FILIPINOS (On the Indolence of the Filipinos). An essay on the so-called Filipino indolence and an evaluation of the reasons for such allegations
Period of Activism
-youth activism in 1970-72 was due to
domestic and worldwide causes
Seeds of Activism
-resulted in the declaration of Martial Law in 1972. However, we can say that the seeds were earlier sown from the times of Lapu-lapu, Lakandula, and Rizal.
"The youth is the hope of the Fatherland" - Rizal
Period of the Bloody Placards
-Pineda also said that this was the time
when the youth once more proved that it is
not the constant invasion that shape our race
"There is a limit to one's patience. It may
explode like a volcano if over strained."
The Literary Revolution
The youth became completely rebellious during this period. They held pens and wrote on placards in red paint the equivalent of the word MAKIBAKA.
The literature of the activists reached a point where they stated boldly what should be done to effect these changes.
Some of those who rallied to this revolutionary form of literature were Rolando Tinio, Rogelio Mangahas, Efren Abueg, Rio Alma,and Clemente Bautista.
Period of New Society
The period of New Society started on
Carlos Planca awards continued to give
the annual awards
Those who wrote poetry during
were: Ponciano Pineda, Aniceto Silvestre, Jose
Garcia Revelo, Bienvenido Ramos, Vicente
Dimasalang, Cir Lopez Francisco, and Pelagio
In 1977, the Tales of Manuvu, a new style of
rock of the ballet opera was also added to
First Prize – “THE HEART OF EMPTINESS IS
BLACK” – Ricardo DemetilloSecond Prize –
– Azucena Crajo
Third Prize – “THE RICEBIRD HAS BROWN
WINGS” – Federico Licsi Espino, Jr.
First Prize (No Award)
Second Prize – “AFTERCAFE – Juan H. Alegre
Third Prize – “DULCE EXTRANJERA”
–Wilfredo D. Nollede
First Prize – “A LIFE IN THE SLUMS” –
Rolando S. TinioSecond Prize – “PASSWORD
– Paul Stephen
Third Prize – “THE MINERVA FOUNDATION”
– Maidan Flores
First Prize – “CHARTS” – Cirilo F. Bautista
Second Prize – “A TRICK OF MIRRORS” –
Rolando S. Tinio
Third Prize – “ALAPAAP’S MOUNTAIN” –
Erwin E. Castillo
Period of the Third Republic
In 1982, those who won were:
"Heart Island" by jose Dalisay Jr.
"Pas de Deux" by Azucena Grajo Uranza
"The Sky Is Always Blue" by Joe Marie A. Abueg
Ten Years of Military Rule
New Society, Martial Rule was at last
lifted on January 2, 1981
The First Republic
he claimed was during the Philippine
Republic of Emillio Aguinaldo
Americans granted us our independent
on July 4, 1946
This period, January 2, 1981 was the
Thrid Republic when was freed from
Oppresion and suppresion
this was futher aggravated when former
Senator Benigno S. Aquino Jr. the idol of the
Filipino Masses whom they hoped to be
the next president who was brutally
murdered on August 21, 2983
In 1983, the mood was retive, characteristics on the
"Oldtimer" by Jose Y. Dalisay Jr.
: "Games" by Jesus O. Cruz
"Perfect Sunday" by Jose Y. Ayala
In 1985, those who won were:
"The Hand of God" by Conrado de Quiros
"A Novel Prize forJorge" by Eli Ang Barroso
No awards for second prize
"Mecca of the East" by Charles Loong
The aim of contemporary history is to
conceptualize, contextualize, and historicize
to explain some aspect of the recent past or to
provide a historical understanding of current
trends or developments
When the recent past was being debated
in the political and public arenas
Top Five Contemporary Authors
1.Isabel allende- chilean-american author wrote her debut novel, "house of sprits" to great acclaim in 1982.
2.Margaret Atwood-canadian author has numerous critically acclaim novels
3.Jonathan Frfanzen-winner of the natioanl book award for his 2001 novel, the corrections.
4.Ian McEwan-british writer starting winnig literary awards with his first book, first love and last rites
5.David Mitchel-english novelist is known for his tendercy toward esperimental structure.
Contemprary literture is vast group of written works produced from a specific time in history through the current age
This literary era defines a time period, but it also describes a particular style and quality of writing
Writing began in 1960s
few claim started at end of WWII
extands to current day
most come from western authors