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Argumentative

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Nicole Spaeth

on 1 February 2016

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Transcript of Argumentative

Step 1: Introduce the argument by giving your audience basic background knowledge
that will make your audience INTERESTED
(hook):

Why did this question come up? What does the reader need to know before you begin?

Step 2: Compose a CLEAR
thesis
!

Step 3: You may consider including a "road map." What main reasons/claims will you cover?
Thesis
: Main claim, must be a debatable opinion, topic sentence of an argumentative essay

Claim
: A reason for your thesis, answers the how/why of the thesis, requires support (evidence, example, explanation) to be strong, ACE

Counterclaim
: A claim that DISAGREES with the thesis. COUNTER = AGAINST

Rebuttal
: Evidence (examples, statistics, expert opinion, logic/reasoning) that negates or disagrees with the counterclaim.

Credible
: Believable, trustworthy

Bias
: if the author has a strong interest in an idea or person that may affect the credibility of his/her argument

Valid
: when something is true and has support/evidence to back it up

Logical fallacy
: When there is a "hole" in someone's reasoning.
**
Slippery slope
: If we ban Hummers, then sooner or later all cars will be banned!
**
Cause/Effect
: I drank Mt. Dew and now I'm sick; therefore, Mt. Dew makes me sick.
**
Generalization
: We lost our first game; therefore, we suck.
Vocabulary
Introduction
This is your main opinion: Think topic sentence.
Picks a side of the argument!
Must be debatable.
BAD ex: Pollution is not good for the earth.
GOOD ex: We need to have an increased focus on recycling to reduce pollution.
Thesis
Claim = A reason that supports your thesis.
Begin each body paragraph with a sentence that clearly
ANSWERS
the why/how of your thesis.
Cite evidence
to support your claim.
Explain
or provide details after your evidence to connect the claim back to your thesis: Why does your evidence support your claim (and therefore, your thesis)?
ACE: answer, cite, explain connection
Claims
Counterclaim:
A claim that negates or disagrees with the thesis/claim.
Counterclaim
Rebuttal:
A specific part of the counterclaim. Evidence (examples, statistics, expert opinion, logic/reasoning) that negates or disagrees with the counterclaim.


Rebuttal
Argumentative
Writing

Prefix fun! Did you know... counter = against
Thesis/Main Claim:
Hybrid cars are an effective strategy to fight pollution.
Example:
Counterclaim:
Some might say
that instead of focusing on cars, which still encourages a culture of driving even if it cuts down on pollution, the nation should focus on building and encouraging use of mass transit systems, like trains and buses.
Rebuttal:
However, while mass transit is an environmentally sound idea that should be encouraged, it is not feasible in many rural and suburban areas, or for people who must commute to work; thus hybrid cars are a better solution for much of the nation's population.
Counterclaim:
Some might say that instead of focusing on cars, which still encourages a culture of driving even if it cuts down on pollution, the nation should focus on building and encouraging use of mass transit systems.
**A successful rebuttal makes sure the counterclaim is not strong enough to weaken your argument.
Example of counterclaim paragraph:
Bias
Definition 1:
a tendency to believe that some people, ideas, etc., are better than others that usually results in treating some people unfairly

Definition 2:
a strong interest in something or a strong ability to do something.
(Merriam-Webster)
Bias can make an argument less
credible
(believable).
If an author is biased, he/she may have already formed an opinion before doing research. Therefore, it is possible that they will use weak points or unsupported points to build his/her argument.
Weak Claims
*Sometimes we need to
evaluate
claims to decide if they are
valid
(strong) or weak (invalid, unsupported or illogical).

Ask yourself....
Does the claim have evidence to support it? (data/statistics/research/examples/anecdotes) GET SPECIFIC!
Is the evidence from a
credible
source? (Harvard study or 6th grade poll - which would you believe?)
Is there a
logical fallacy
?
Generalization
Slippery slope
Cause/effect
Organization
1. Intro paragraph:
Background info on the argument, THESIS, road map outlining claims that will be found in body paragraphs(sometimes)

2. Claim paragraph(s):
Claim (reason to support thesis), evidence, explanation/details connecting evidence back to thesis

3. Counterclaim paragraph(s):
Addresses a counterclaim, provides a rebuttal

4. Conclusion:
Re-visits main ideas of the argument and leaves the reader with a lasting impression.




Evaluating Argument for effectiveness
Definition of "evaluate"
>>> to judge value (usefulness).
Definition of "effective"
>>> successfully fulfills its purpose or function.

How do we know if an argumentative essay is effective?

*Cites sources
*Sources are credible
*Counterclaims are addressed and rebuttals are provided
*Claims have support/explanation/evidence
*Thesis is clear and debatable
*Facts are specific!
*Reasoning is logical
*Author is credible or knowledgeable about the topic
Find counterclaims for these claim statements:

1. Claim: Cats are better than dogs because they're independent.

2. Claim: Students shouldn't have homework because kids have busy after-school schedules.

Find rebuttals for these counterclaims:

1. Counterclaim: Some might say that Americans resist foreign food, like bugs...

2. Counterclaim: Although it is true that bugs are highly nutritious...
Practice Time!
Full transcript