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Transcript of Argumentative
that will make your audience INTERESTED
Why did this question come up? What does the reader need to know before you begin?
Step 2: Compose a CLEAR
Step 3: You may consider including a "road map." What main reasons/claims will you cover?
: Main claim, must be a debatable opinion, topic sentence of an argumentative essay
: A reason for your thesis, answers the how/why of the thesis, requires support (evidence, example, explanation) to be strong, ACE
: A claim that DISAGREES with the thesis. COUNTER = AGAINST
: Evidence (examples, statistics, expert opinion, logic/reasoning) that negates or disagrees with the counterclaim.
: Believable, trustworthy
: if the author has a strong interest in an idea or person that may affect the credibility of his/her argument
: when something is true and has support/evidence to back it up
: When there is a "hole" in someone's reasoning.
: If we ban Hummers, then sooner or later all cars will be banned!
: I drank Mt. Dew and now I'm sick; therefore, Mt. Dew makes me sick.
: We lost our first game; therefore, we suck.
This is your main opinion: Think topic sentence.
Picks a side of the argument!
Must be debatable.
BAD ex: Pollution is not good for the earth.
GOOD ex: We need to have an increased focus on recycling to reduce pollution.
Claim = A reason that supports your thesis.
Begin each body paragraph with a sentence that clearly
the why/how of your thesis.
to support your claim.
or provide details after your evidence to connect the claim back to your thesis: Why does your evidence support your claim (and therefore, your thesis)?
ACE: answer, cite, explain connection
A claim that negates or disagrees with the thesis/claim.
A specific part of the counterclaim. Evidence (examples, statistics, expert opinion, logic/reasoning) that negates or disagrees with the counterclaim.
Prefix fun! Did you know... counter = against
Hybrid cars are an effective strategy to fight pollution.
Some might say
that instead of focusing on cars, which still encourages a culture of driving even if it cuts down on pollution, the nation should focus on building and encouraging use of mass transit systems, like trains and buses.
However, while mass transit is an environmentally sound idea that should be encouraged, it is not feasible in many rural and suburban areas, or for people who must commute to work; thus hybrid cars are a better solution for much of the nation's population.
Some might say that instead of focusing on cars, which still encourages a culture of driving even if it cuts down on pollution, the nation should focus on building and encouraging use of mass transit systems.
**A successful rebuttal makes sure the counterclaim is not strong enough to weaken your argument.
Example of counterclaim paragraph:
a tendency to believe that some people, ideas, etc., are better than others that usually results in treating some people unfairly
a strong interest in something or a strong ability to do something.
Bias can make an argument less
If an author is biased, he/she may have already formed an opinion before doing research. Therefore, it is possible that they will use weak points or unsupported points to build his/her argument.
*Sometimes we need to
claims to decide if they are
(strong) or weak (invalid, unsupported or illogical).
Does the claim have evidence to support it? (data/statistics/research/examples/anecdotes) GET SPECIFIC!
Is the evidence from a
source? (Harvard study or 6th grade poll - which would you believe?)
Is there a
1. Intro paragraph:
Background info on the argument, THESIS, road map outlining claims that will be found in body paragraphs(sometimes)
2. Claim paragraph(s):
Claim (reason to support thesis), evidence, explanation/details connecting evidence back to thesis
3. Counterclaim paragraph(s):
Addresses a counterclaim, provides a rebuttal
Re-visits main ideas of the argument and leaves the reader with a lasting impression.
Evaluating Argument for effectiveness
Definition of "evaluate"
>>> to judge value (usefulness).
Definition of "effective"
>>> successfully fulfills its purpose or function.
How do we know if an argumentative essay is effective?
*Sources are credible
*Counterclaims are addressed and rebuttals are provided
*Claims have support/explanation/evidence
*Thesis is clear and debatable
*Facts are specific!
*Reasoning is logical
*Author is credible or knowledgeable about the topic
Find counterclaims for these claim statements:
1. Claim: Cats are better than dogs because they're independent.
2. Claim: Students shouldn't have homework because kids have busy after-school schedules.
Find rebuttals for these counterclaims:
1. Counterclaim: Some might say that Americans resist foreign food, like bugs...
2. Counterclaim: Although it is true that bugs are highly nutritious...