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kejt dhrami

on 31 May 2011

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poverty profile A bitter past and a promising future CONTENTS -A brief profile of the Country

-What is the real problem?

-The capabilities approach on Kosovo

-Proposed interventions and strategies

-Conclusions conflict between ethnicities within the territory of Kosovo What is the real problem? without a governing experience Statistical overview Total surface: 10,887 sq km
land: 10,887 sq km;
water: 0 sq km.
Population: 1,825,632.
Religions: Muslim, Serbian Orthodox, Roman Catholic General characteristics reached its independence only on 17 February 2008 genocide war of the year 1999 massive emigration
occupation of vacant spaces by Serbians Albanians 92%,
others 8% (Serbians, Bosnians, Gorani, Turkish, Roma, Ashkali and Egyptians ) post-conflict period: a rapid growth During and after the 1999 conflict, the population was provided with humanitarian assistance, from other countries and worldwide organizations ( like USAID, Terre des Hommes, etc) After 2005 the economic growth had a slower rhythm, and the GDP rate increased of around 4% from 2005 through 2008, due to a recovery in economic activity and donations In July 2008, Kosovo received pledges of $1.9 billion from 37 countries in support of its reform priorities. In June 2009, Kosovo joined the World Bank and International Monetary Fund, and so began servicing its share of the former Yugoslavia's debt. Kosovo surpassed the economical crisis of the recent years better than most countries in South Eastern Europe segregation of the Serbian communities within the country diminished opportunities that can be valid for the future of Kosovo? The capabilities approach on Kosovo GDP per capita of 2500 € ( CIA World Factbook, est. 2009 )
The main economical activity in Kosovo is agriculture, which makes up 29% of the country’s GDP
The natural resources are one of the strengths of Kosovo:coal, lead, zinc, chromium and silver OTHER STATISTICS population under poverty line 1.55$ population under extreme poverty line 1.02$ distribution of poverty 46% of Labor Force is unemployed according to the Statistical Office of Kosovo 2009
Remittances from the Diaspora - located mainly in Germany, Switzerland, and the Nordic countries – make up a considerable 13-15% of GDP
According to a profile from the World Bank in 2003 Kosovo gained 36.2 million Euros per year from export activities, and spent 968.5 million on import
The latest UNDP record showed an HDI ( Human Development Index ) of 0.734 private consumption and assets According to a study of the Tdh ( Terre des hommes ), organization dealing with issues of child poverty and rights, a 6 persons household in Kosovo had an income of 600 CHF ( Swiss francs) per month, in a time when 1 kg bread costs 0.65 CHF
There are about 172 properties that belong to Kosovo and are currently under the administration of the former Yugoslavian countries. cpr The hilly and mostly rocky landscape of the country gives possibility for only specific types of tourism
Other common pool resources are the mineral ones, which, as mentioned above, have a potential to be one of the main exporting products of Kosovo, if there is a good industry that elaborates the raw materials according the wished standards. PGS In the field of public goods and services Kosovo needs to make huge improvements. The accessibility of some of the regions to the main road network is poor, which directly leads to segregation of a part of the rural population.
One of the main deficiencies in the field of public goods is the university system: ther eare only 3 well-known universities: U. of Prishtina, Prizren and European Vision. VOICE The percentage of voters was low, about 26% in the biggest cities. There are some unions of workers, but their power is not defining. The accessibility of the community in matters of planning, urbanization, the public sphere, etc, is still delicate. Dignity The Republic of Kosovo is recognized by 72 of 192 countries member of the UN, and by 22 countries of the EU. This gives a positive climate and a sense of globalization, which the Kosovars have longed for. The liberalization of access to EU countries is expected in the decade to come, so the status of Kosovars won’t be questioned anymore. Anyway the population maintains a strong connection to the national culture, which can be put in good use when realizing community-based projects, that tend to revitalize parts of the city that are degrading. protection This is one of the most delicate matters, that has directly to do with the reason why the Serbian communities and the Kosovars are not integrated with each other. There is a sense of distrust, and the memories of past violence haven’t gone yet. This is quite understandable. What should be done, is reinforcing the collaboration of other countries with Kosovo. This would provide a security far greater than that of peace organizations, like NATO: the security of economical sustainability and political growth, in order to take the right steps forward as a newborn. INTERVENTIONS One of the first interventions would be in the field of agriculture.
The gradual shift towards an economy of services is unavoidable, but production should be encouraged as well, since only through the export of the surplus of production, the import-export ratio can be diminished.
The further exploration of the own natural resources can give another contribution to the GDP and help reset communication with the Serbian communities, which are segregated in Kosovo.
The intermediation of the government in these situations shouldn’t be encouraged, because it can lead to corruption and misleading of the destination of the fund. Another intervention is that, related to the educational background of the students. Building more universities should be on the top priorities of the educational agenda. An interesting approach would be creating branches of some Universities abroad, seen as a private investment. There would be a dual interest, for the population of Kosovo to have a proper education, and for the other countries, to contribute to the education of one of the poorest country in the region. The issue to be addressed more firmly is that of the integration between the communities.
How can this be realized without degenerating to possible conflicts?
One way could be to create organizations that aim to address issues in a low, neighbourhood level.
Architecture centers worldwide function as a good example of participatory planning and decision-making.
The creation of different ones in Kosovo would make the people understand that the environment they live in must be looked after in collaboration with each other. CONCLUSIONS The most promising thing is a new sense of freedom that you see mostly in the involvement of the new generation in the overall situation.

In trying to seize the new freedom, they have also promoted a good sense of integration to the outside world, by keeping, meanwhile, a strong love for their nation.
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