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Functionalist approaches to translation theory
Transcript of Functionalist approaches to translation theory
Koller (1980-) Descriptive translation studies Hermans (1980s)
Manipulation School (1980s)
Lefevere (1990s) Function & loyalty Key concerns:
translation procedures Problems:
Definition of equivalence
Early stages: narrow focus Solution: Extension of focus
Text linguistics (text in situation and culture) Key concerns:
norms and laws of translation process
methodology of TS
rejection of equivalence concept
critique of narrow linguistic focus Cultural studies Bassnett
Gay translation (all 1990s-) Key concerns:
Rejection of intrinsic, stable meaning of ST
Focus on text function
Equivalence > adequacy
Focus on intercultural communication
Focus on translator as expert
View of translation as a social and cognitive (as well as linguistic) activity "Texts are produced and received with a specific purpose, or function, in mind. The starting point for any translation is therefore not the linguistic surface structure of the ST, but the purpose of the TT."
(Schäffner, 2001) Reiß/Vermeer (1970s-)
Göpferich (1990s-) Skopos Translatorial action "The end justifies the means."
(Reiß/Vermeer, 1984) Translator is an "expert for the production of transcultural message transmitters which [...] are used by clients in their communicative actions."
(Holz-Mänttäri, 1984) "Loyalty limits the range of justifiable TT functions for one particular ST and raises the need for a negotiation of the translation assignment between translators and their clients."
(Nord, 1997) Strengths Recognition of text as being situated in a communicative and cultural context
Recognition of translator role
Reflection of practical aspects of translation
Framework for translation decisions
Use for translator training Criticism Terminology/lack of originality of theory
Lack of empirical basis (only observation of translation practice)
Lack of respect for original ("dethronement")
Cultural relativism (<-> "anti-universalism") Placement Details Critique Integrated approach "Prototypological framework"
Stratificational model References Prunc, E., Einführung in die Translationswissenschaft, 2nd ed. 2002, Graz Translation Studies, self-published with the support of Graz University
Schäffner, C., Annotated Texts for Translation:English-German (Functionalist approaches illustrated), 2001, Multilingual Matters Ltd, Clevedon
Snell-Hornby, M., Hönig, H., Kußmaul, P., Schmitt, P., Handbuch Translation, 2nd ed., 2006, Stauffenburg Verlag Brigitte Narr GmbH, Tübingen
Nord, C., Translating as a purposeful activity:Functionalist approaches explained, 1997, St.Jerome Publishing, Manchester
Munday, J., Introducing Translation Studies, 2008, Routledge, Abingdon, Oxon (UK) Necessary degree of differentiation