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AP World History Review 8000 B.C.E. - 1450 C.E.
Transcript of AP World History Review 8000 B.C.E. - 1450 C.E.
Sumer- cuneiform writing, traded, 12 month calender, math based on units of 60, polytheistic, city states, ziggurats, done by 1700 B.C.E.
Babylon- King Hammurabi overthrew Akkadians by 1700 B.C.E.
Developed Code of Hammurabi
Hittites invaded by 1500 B.C.E (iron)
Assyrians used iron to establish Nineveh- conquered by Medes and Chaldeans
Chaldean King Nebuchadnezzer rebuilt Babylon
Persian Empire emerged- by 500 B.C.E their empire spanned from the Nile to the Mediterranean and East through present day Afghanistan
Persians built many roads (Great Royal Road was 1,600 miles long from Aegean sea to the Persian Gulf)
Mauryan & Gupta
Mauryan (321-180 BCE) Indus to Ganges River Valley and through Deccan Plateau
Founded by Chndragupta Maurya, then grandson Ashoka Maurya
Traded silk, cotton, elephants to Mesopotamia and had a strong military
Ashoka converted to Buddhism after being disgusted with violent and bloody fighting
Rock and Pillar Edicts- reminded citizens to live generous and righteous lives
After Ashoka's death in 232 BCE, Chandra Gupta II revived the declining Mauryan Empire between 375 and 415 CE- The Gupta Empire
Golden Age- peace, math developments (zero and Pi), decimal system and numerals 1-9.
Hinduism became dominant religion- women lost rights and child marriage emerged
Collapses in 550 CE from the White Huns
Chavin, Olmec, Maya
Olmec- (Mexico now) 1500-400 BCE was an urban society, surpluses of corn, beans, squash. Were polytheistic and developed writing and calender as well as irrigation and large building construction
Chavin- Andes Mnts. 900-200 BCE was Urban, polytheistic, agricultural, used coast, made metals into tools and weapons and made llamas their laborers
Both were significant b/c they developed as mirrored of the river valleys but only had water from streams and small rivers
Maya- 300BCE- 800 CE (Mexico now and central America)
was a collection of city states ruled by same king
Built pyramids and wrote using hieroglyphics, developed a calender (2012)
Had the heavens, humans in middle, and underworld
Gods maintained agricultural cycle in exchange for honors and sacrifices
Had no large animals -> used humans for labor
cotton and maize cultivation
built temples similar to ziggurats and pyramids
sole focus was shelter and food
no advanced tools
had spoken language, ability to make and control fire, and ability to make simple tools
Foraging Societies- Hunter and Gatherer, moved around alot in order to survive
Pastoral Societies- domesticated animals, egalitarian, social status based on the size of ones herd, moved around still to look for grazing areas and water
Established along the Nile River 1450 BCE
Flourished due to Nile's predictable floods
Seperated into 3 kingdoms- old, middle, new
Before Old Kingdom, Egypt was united under King Menes- built capitol at Memphis
Obelisks and Pyramids built for the afterlife
Writing system was Hieroglyphics
Interest in astronomy developed a good calender
Relied on trade for timber, stone, and outside contact
Polytheistic- focus on afterlife, mummification
Queen Hatjepsut- 22 year reign, high status of women, women could buy and sell property
Pyramid Social Structure- Pharaoh, priest, nobles, merchants and artisans, peasants
Declined 1100 BCE by constant conquering
AP World History Review 8000 B.C.E. - 600 C.E.
8000 B.C.E - 3000 B.C.E.
People moved from nomadic lifestyles to agricultural and city life
Stayed in same place- unity, property ownership
Organized economies, government, religious organizations- civilization
irrigation techniques- could use all land
animals began to be used as labor
Granite used for farming tools, pottery for cooking, wheels for carts, sails for boats
Bronze Age- later, significant b/c it was a harder metal combination
Phoenicians, Lydians, Hebrews
Lydians- concept of coined money to replace the barter system
Phoenicians- established powerful naval city-states, simple alphabet of 22 letters, much easier than cuneiform
Hebrews- belief in Judaism, monotheistic, established Israel in Palestine by 1000 B.C.E.
Hebrews were enslaved by Nebuchadnezzar but freed under Persians
Indus River Valley & Aryans
Qin & Han
Qin Dynasty (221-209 BCE)
Developed strong economy, powerful army with iron weapons
Built the Great Wall of China under Qin Shihuangdi
Had a dominant belief system of legalism
Han Dynasty (200 BCE- 460s BCE)
Wu Ti held off Xiongnu (white huns)
Developed the civil service exam based on Confucius' teachings
Developed paper, sundials, calenders, rudder, compass,
Huge Mountains north and west limited contact
Khyber Pass through Hindu Kush Mnts. was only connection
Harappa and Mohenjo- Daro- two major cities that were home to more than 100,000 people, well planned, had sophisticated water systems, strong government led by a priest king, strong architecture, grew cotton, made cloth
Abandoned around 1900 BCE and by 1500 BCE Aryans arrived
Aryans from near the Black Caspian Seas
Used horses and advanced weaponry
Polytheistic- Hinduism was major belief
Also based social structure off of it with the caste system
Early days allowed the movement between castes
Shang & Zhou
Shang rose in Hwang Ho River Valley
trade based civ thanks to agricultural surplus
Strong military and workers (walls built around towns and cities) warriors used chariots
Controlled from 1600-1100 BCE
Used horse drawn chariots, developed poked wheel, major silk and pottery production
Used Patriarch Family System (oldest male led)
1100 BCE Wu Wang established Zhou Dynasty
Ruled for 900 years (longest)
Believed in the Mandate of Heaven
Developed feudal system and bureaucracies
Fighting and warfare between feudal kingdoms ended Zhou in 256 BCE
Peninsula between Aegean and Med. Sea
Made up of city- states known as polis'
Main Polis' were Athens and Sparta
Athens had a democracy that grew out of a monarchy
Sparta was more militaristic and much more strict
Although Athens was a democracy, only adult males could participate
Slave labor allowed other men to find time to vote and make decisions
Polytheistic- Greek Gods we know of
Persian Wars (499-449 BCE) united all polis' against the common enemy, Persia
Golden Age- Percles, Delan League, Socrates, Aristotle, Plato, Homer, Archimedes, Hippocrates, Euclid, Pythagoras
Peloponnesian War (431-404 BCE)- Athens vs. Sparta
Two tragedies- plague that killed mass population an Pericles, and the Navy suffering a loss at Syracuse
Macedonians took over and restored Greek culture- Phillip III and son Alexander The Great expanded Macedonia
Divded into 3 empires- Antigonid (Greece and Macedon) Ptolemaic (Egypt) and Seleucid (Bactria and Anatolia)
Alexander used Helenism and conquered the Persian Empire
Alexander died at age 33 and the Romans soon rose up
509 BCE- 476 CE, Polytheistic, were geographically protected, had a social structure of patricians and plebians
Government was a republic with a senate and assembly
Civil Laws- Twelve Tables of Rome
Pater families- eldest male ruled and although women were inferior to men, women could own property
Carthage was its first enemy- led to three punic wars
Built road networks, aqueducts, and enlarged their navy
First Triumverate- 3 men emerged with power and then one- Julius Caesar. He became a dictator and was assassinated by his people
Second Triumverate- 3 men again with Octavious seizing power which ended the republic
Under Octavious or Augustus Casear, there was Pax Romana or Roman Peace as well as growth in arts and science
Paganism was the state religion but Christianity soon came to dominate and is stayed the main religion to this day
Developed in 400 BCE by Confucius, the son of an aristocratic chinese family
Seen more as a political and social philosophy rather than a religion
There were 5 main relationships it focused on as well as filial piety which was respect to ones elders
Since it wasn't fully a religion it was compatible with other religions
Chinese cultures continued to practice it
Developed in 500 BCE by Lao-Tzu
The Dao is the way of nature and one aims to achieve harmony with nature
Daoists became great astronomers, chemists and botanists
served as a counter balance to Confucanism
Developed around the same time as confucianism and was practiced during the Qin Dynasty
Said that peace could only be sustained through a strong, centralized gov.
Focused on things that were practical and sustained society
Practiced by different Indian nations
Was brought by the Aryan invaders
Believed that Brahama was the creater of everything and if one could follow dharma, the could reach unification with Brahaman
How one acts determines the caste you're born into in the next life
Was a religion as well as a social system
Buddhism spawned out of it
Founded by a Hindu prince Siddhartha Gautama
Buddhists follow the Four Noble Truths which admits desire and then continue to follow the Eightfold Path to eliminate desire
Once one eliminates desire, they reach Nirvana
Split into two- Theraveda and Mahayana
Spread to Eastern Civ, India, CHina, Southeast Asia, and Japan
Monotheistic religion practiced by Hebrews
Jews believed they were created by God
Follow the laws of Moses in the sacred Torah
Also both a religion and societal practice
Jewish Jesus of Nazareth created it out of Judaism
Taught devotion to God and love for human beings
Jesus Christ is the son of God
Spread by disciples of Jesus and Paul of Tarsus
What was the sole focus of nomads?
What is the difference between foraging and pastoral societies?
When was the Neolithic Revolution?
What was one feature of the Neolithic Revolution?
What were the two major Mesopotamian city-states?
What were the Hittites famous for?
How long was the Persian Great Royal Road?
What were the Lydians famous for?
In what river valley was Egypt?
Who was the female ruler of Egypt for 22 years?
What were the two major cities of the Indus?
What was the Khyber Pass?
What family system was used in the Shang?
What animal did the Chavin use for labor?
Where were the Mayans located?
What plateau was the Mauryan Empire on?
What religion did Ashoka Maurya convert to?
What dynasty created the Great Wall of China?
When were the Persian Wars?
How many triumvirates were in Rome?