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Diomar Camaongay

on 13 February 2015

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Transcript of Curriculum

CURRICULUM is what taught in school, a set of subjects, a content, a program of studies, a set of materials, a sequence of courses, a set of performance objectives, everything that goes within the school. It is what taught inside and outside the school directed by the teacher, everything planned by school, a series of experiences undergone by learners in school or what individual learner experiences as a result of school. In short, Curriculum is the total learning experiences of the learner, under the guidance of the teacher.
Definitions of Curriculum
Curriculum Approaches
School Curriculum Approcahes
Curriculum can be approached or seen in three ways: a content, a process, or an outcome.
"Be the change you want to see in the world"

~Mahatma Gandhi
McNeil in 1990 categorized curriculum change as follows:
Categories of Curriculum Change
"Instead of national curriculum for education, what is really needed is an individual curriculum for every child"

~Charles Handy
Types of Curricula in Schools
Development and Implementation
"Nature's curriculum cannot be changed"

~Martin Lewis Perl
Curriculum development is a dynamic process involving many different process and procedures. It is linear and follows a logical step-by-step fashion involving the following steps:
Curriculum Development Process
Types of Curriculum Design Models
"Happiness is not something you postpone in the future; it is something you design for the present."

"Where there is unity,
there is always victory"

~Publilius Syrus
Stakeholders in Curriculum Implementation
Robert M. Hutchins
views curriculum as "permanent studies" where rules of grammar, reading, rhetoric, logic, and mathematics for basic education are emphasized.
The 3Rs
Joseph Schwab
thinks that the sole source of curriculum is a discipline, thus the subject areas include Science, Mathematics, Social Studies, English and many more. In college, academic disciplines are labelled as humaities, sciences, languages, mathematics among others. He coined the word discipline as a ruling doctrine for curriculum development.
Arthur Bestor
, as an essentialist, believes that the mission of the school should be intellectual training, hence curriculum should focus on the fundamental intellectual disciplines of grammar, literature, and writing. It should include mathematics, science, history and foreign language.
Curriculum from the Traditional Points of View
Curriculum from Progressive Points of View
John Dewey
believes that education is experiencing. Reflective thinking is a means that unifies curricular elements that is tested by application.
Holin Caswell
Kenn Campbell
viewed curriculum as all experiences children have under the guidance of teachers.
Othaniel Smith, William Stanley,
Harlan Shore
likewise defined curriculum as a sequence of potential experience, set up in schools for the purpose of disciplining children and youth in group ways of thinking and acting
Curriculum as a Content or Body of Knowledge
If curriculum is equated as content, then the focus will be the body of knowledge to be transmitted to students using the appropriate teaching method.
Four ways of presenting the content
in the curriculum
much contents is based on knowledge and experiences are included
fewer topics around major and sub topics and their interaction, with relatedness emphasized
combination of concepts that develops conceptual structures
leads to complete units of instruction
Criteria in the Selection of Content
Content should contribute to the ideas, concepts, principles and generalization that should attain the over-all purpose of the curriculum.

Content becomes the means of developing cognitive, affective, and psychomotor skills of the learners. It should address the cultural context of the learners.
The authenticity of the subject matter forms its validity.

There is a need for validity check and verification at a regular interval. What maybe valid in its original form may not continue to be valid in the current times.
Usefulness of the content in the curriculum is relative to the learners who are going to use it. Utility can be relative to time. It may have been useful in the past, but may not be useful now or in the future
The complexity of the content should be within the range of experiences of the learners. This is based on the psychological principles of learning.

Appropriate organization of content standards and sequencing of contents are basic principles influencing learnability
The subject content can be learned within the time allowed, resources available, expertise of the teachers, and the nature of the learners.
Interest is a driving force for students to learn.

Will the learners take interest in the content? Why? Is the content meaningful? What value will the contents have in the present and in the future life of the learners?
BASIC Principles of Curriculum Content
The logical arrangement of the content.

Vertical - deepening the content
Horizontal - broadening the same content
Relatedness or connectedness of the content to other contents to provide wholistic or unified view of curriculum.
Content should continuously flow as it was before, to where it is now, and where it will be in the future.

Constant repetition, reinforcement, and enhancement of content are all elements of continuity.
Content should be fairly distributed in depth and breadth.
As the content complexity progresses with the educational levels, vertically or horizontally across the same discipline, smooth connections or bridging should be provided.
Curriculum as a Process
Curriculum is not seen as a physical thing or a noun, but as a verb or an action.

Curriculum as a process is seen as a scheme about the practice of teaching. The process of teaching and learning becomes the central concern of teachers to emphasize critical thinking, thinking meaning-making and heads-on, hands-on doing and many others.

While content provides materials on what to teach, the process provides curriculum on how to teach the content. The intersection of the content and process is called the Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK)
Guiding Principles of Approaching Curriculum as a Process
Curriculum process in the form of teaching methods or strategies are means to achieve the end.
There is no single best process or method. Its effectiveness will depend on the desired learning outcomes, the learners, support materials and the teacher.
Curriculum process should stimulate the learners' desire to develop the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains in each individual.
In the choice of methods, learning and teaching styles should be considered.
Every method or process should result to learning outcomes which can be described as cognitive, affective and psychomotor.
Flexibility in the use of the process or methods should be considered. An effective process will always result to learning outcomes.
Both teaching and learning are the two important processes in the implementation of the curriculum.
Curriculum as a Product
Product is what the students desire to achieve as learning outcomes.

Central of the approach is the formulation of behavioral objectives stated as intended learning outcomes or desired products so that content and teaching methods may be organized and the results evaluated.

Curriculum product is expressed in form of outcomes which are referred to as the achieved learning outcomes.
For Basic Education, curriculum is recommended by the DepEd, for Higher Education by CHEd and TESDA.

The recommendations come in the form of memoranda or policy, standards and guidelines. Other professional organizations or international bodies like UNESCO also recommends curricula in schools.
This includes documents based on the recommended curriculum. They come in a form of course of study, syllabi, modules, books, instructional guides among others.

A packet of this written curriculum is the teacher's lesson plan. The most recent curriculum is the K to 12 for Philippine Basic Education.
The teacher and the learners will put life to the written curriculum. The skill of the teacher to facilitate learning based on the written curriculum with the aid of instructional materials and facilities will be necessary.

The taught curriculum will depend largely on the teaching style of the teacher and the learning style of the students.
It is described as the support materials that the teacher needs to make teaching-learning meaningful. It also includes facilities where learning occurs outside or inside the four-walled building. These are the places where authentic learning through direct experiences occur.
Taught and supported curricula have to be evaluated to find out if the teacher has succeeded or not in facilitating learning. It can either be assessment for learning or assessment of learning.
If a student changed behavior, he/she has learned.

The positive outcome of teaching is an indicator of learning. Learned curriculum is demonstrated by students through higher order and critical thinking and lifelong skills.
This curriculum is not deliberately planned but has a great impact on the behavior of the learner.

Teachers should be sensitive and aware of this kind of curriculum. Teachers must have good foresight in order to bring to the surface what are hidden.
Curriculum Planning
It considers the school vision, mission, and goals. It also includes the philosophy or strong education belief of the school.
Curriculum Designing
It is the way curriculum is conceptualized to include the selection and organization of content; the selection and organization of learning experiences and activities; and the selection of the assessment procedure and tools to measure achieved learning outcomes.
This happens in the classroom setting or the learning environment where action takes place. It involves the activities that transpire in every teacher's classroom where learning becomes an active process
Curriculum Evaluating
It determines the extent to which the desired outcomes have been achieved. This procedure is on-going as in finding out the progress of learning (formative) or the mastery of learning (summative). The result of evaluation affects the decision making of curriculum planners and implementors.
Subject-Centered Design
It focuses on the content of the curriculum and corresponds mostly to textbook.

Its design has some variations which are focused on the
individual subject
specific discipline
, and
combination of subjects
or disciplines which is broad field or interdisciplinary.
Subject Design
It is the oldest and the most familiar design for teachers, parents, and laymen. Textbooks are written and support materials are commercially available. However, sometimes learning is compartmentalized. The teacher becomes the vessel and the learners are simply the empty vessel to receive the information or content.
Discipline Design
Discipline refers to specific knowledge learned through a method which the scholars use to study a specific content of their fields.

Discipline design model is often used in college. Curriculum moves higher to a discipline when the subjects are more mature and are already moving towards a career path.
Curriculum Design
Coming from a core, correlated curriculum design links separate subject design to reduce fragmentation. To use correlated design, teachers should come together and plan their lessons cooperatively.
Broad Field Design/Interdisciplinary
This design was made to cure the compartmentalization of the separate subject and integrate the contents that are related to each other.

Sometimes called the holistic curriculum, broad fields draw around themes and integration. It is similar to thematic design, where a specific theme is identified, and all other subject areas revolve around the theme.
Learner-Centered Design
Among the progressive educational psychologists, the learner is the center of the educative process. This emphasis is very strong in elementary level.
Child-centered Design
One learns by doing.

Learners interact with the teachers and the environment, thus there is a collaborative effort on both sides to plan lessons, to select contents, and to do activities together.

Learning is a product of the child's interaction with the environment.

Experience-centered Design
Experiences of the learners become the starting point of the curriculum. Learners are made to choose from various activities that the teacher provides.

The emergence of multiple intelligences theory blends well with this design.
Humanistic Design
The development of self is the ultimate objective of learning.

It considers the cognitive, affective , and psychomotor domains to be interconnected and must be addressed in the curriculum. It stresses the development of positive self-concept and interpersonal skills.
Problem-Centered Design
Content cuts across subject boundaries and must be based on the social problems, needs, concerns, and abilities of the learners.
Life-situations Design
The contents are organized in ways that allow students to clearly view problem areas. It uses thee past and the present experiences of the learners as a means to analyze the basic areas of living.

The connections to real situations increases thee relevance of the curriculum.
Core-problem Design
It centers on general education and problems are based on the common human activities. The central focuds of the core design includes common needs, problems, and concerns of the learners.
The current curriculum will be replaced or substituted by a new one. Sometimes, we call this a complete overhaul.
There is a minor change to the current or existing curriculum
Building a new structure would mean a major change or modification in the school system, degree program or educational system.

Using an integrated curriculum for the whole school for K to 12 requires the primary and secondary levels to work as a team.
These are changes that are disruptive, but teachers have to adjust to them within a fairly short time.
Values Orientation
This classification will respond to shift in the emphasis that the teacher provides which are not within the mission or vision of the school or vice versa.
LEARNERS: Core of the Curriculum
Learners have more dynamic participation from the planning, designing, implementing, and evaluating. However, the degree of their involvement is dependent on their maturity.

The learners make the curriculum alive. A written curriculum that doesn not consider the students will have a little chance to succeed
TEACHERS: The Curricularists
Teachers are stakeholders who plan, design, implement, and evaluate the curriculum. The most important person of the curriculum implementation is the teacher.

A teacher designs, enriches, and modifies the curriculum to suit the learners' characteristics. As curriculum developers, teachers are part of textbook committee, teacher's selection, school evaluation committee for textbooks and modules' writers themselves.
SCHOOL LEADERS: Curriculum Managers
They should be ready to assist the teachers and the students in the implementation. Convincing the parents on the merits of the new curriculum is the job of the school heads.

They should be committed to change and should employ strategies to meet the needs of the teachers and learners like buildings, books, library, and other needed resources.
Parents may not directly be involved in curriculum implementation but they are formidable partners for the success of any curriculum development endeavor.

Observations on how parents help shape the curriculum in schools:
Disciplinary problems are minimal, and students are highly motivated. When parents take interest in their child's learning, they become closer to the school.
The home is the extended school environment. In life long learning, the achieved learning in schools is transferred at home. Thus, the home becomes the laboratory of learning. Parents see to it that what children have learned in school is practiced at home.
Parent associations are organized. This is being encouraged in School Based Management. This organization also include teachers to expand the school learning community.
COMMUNITY: Curriculum Resources and Learning Environment
"It takes the whole village to educate a child."
Hillary Clinton

The school is in the community, hence, the community is in extended school ground--a learning environment.

The rich natural and human resources of the community can assist in educating the children. The community is the reflection of the school's influence and the school is the reflection of the community support.
Government Agencies
Professional Regulation Commission (PRC)
Civil Service Commission (CSC)
Local Government Units (LGU)
Non-Government Agencies
Gawad Kalinga (GK)
Metrobank Foundation
Philippine Association for Teacher Education (PAFTE)
State Universities and Colleges Teacher Educators Association (SUCTEA)
National Organization of Science Teachers and Educators (NOSTE)
Mathematics Teachers Association of the Philippines (MTAP)
Diomar C. Camaongay, MAT-ELL
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