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The Victorian Era
Transcript of The Victorian Era
Concert programs in the Victorian era tended to balance vocal and instrumental pieces
Convention to alternate between the two kinds of music and to avoid performing several examples of the same genre in a row
Grew from a deep fascination with its contrasting forms, the voice and the instrument being thought mutually interdependent — a "love duet"
A concert wouldn't offer only music from one country; cosmopolitanism was essential to the musical culture
It became common to give much more weight to the vocal component while nonetheless including a few instrumental numbers as contrast.
British composers had been all but excluded from the King's Theatre since its founding, and few were admitted to the programs of the Philharmonic Society; for that reason musicians working against that pattern tended to go against other musical conventions.
Literature, theatre and the arts, music, drama, and opera were widely attended.
Gambling at cards in parlors and casinos was wildly popular during the period
this became a moral issue too and there were evangelical reforms trying to prevent gambling
things like ghost conjurings and communication with dead were popular
Vacations to tourist sites began more popular as holiday times were becoming more common and regulated
Music halls, street artists, circuses and freak shows grew in popularity.
Most people attempted to find harmony between science and faith. However constant discoveries were threatening Christian beliefs
French and British geologists were contradicting Genesis (Darwin's Origin of Species)
opposition to Christian authoritative position (Thomas H. Huxley and John Tyndall)
Still not mutually exclusive (James Clerk Maxwell)
There were a wide range of publications, some secular, some religious, some merging both
John Draper's History of the Conflict between Religion and Science (1875) and Andrew White's The Warfare of Science with Theology in Christendom (1876, expanded as The History of the Warfare… in 1896).
Many past aspects of literature stayed consistent
Modernism began to develop and some authors took on modern styles
One key transcending aspect is change and upheaval- Everything that the previous centuries had held as sacred and indisputable truth came under assault during the era. Nearly every institution of society was shaken by rapid and unpredictable change (much of which was a result of industrial lifestyle)
Optimistic and pessimistic writers about society's progression
Women's role was limited
Prose and novels began to take more a dominance over poetry
Virtues, culture and etiquette
1837 – 1901
- Queen Victoria
Victorian Era is the era of her rule
Sole heir to the throne
Britain's great age of industrial expansion, economic progress and, especially, empire.
Influenced by Lord Melbourne (Prime Minister) and Prince Albert (her husband)
direct political power moved away from the sovereign
The Queen's influence during the middle years of her reign was generally used to support peace and reconciliation. This ideology avoided conflicts
Prussia-Austria-Denmark war by pressuring for neutrality
avert a second Franco-German war by sending a letter to German Emperor
issue of Britain's policy towards the declining Turkish Empire in Europe and Turkish hegemony against Russia
Although there were still tensions
Empress of India under the Royal Titles Act
War with Boer troops in South Africa
Land ownership tensions rose to prominence in the 1850s and 1860s
London Parliament voted to break the Anglican Church’s traditional link with the state in Ireland (at this point Ireland is an integral part of UK) 1871
Decline in sovereign power
Second Reform Act of 1867
the secret ballot in 1872
Representation of the Peoples Act of 1884
Support for domestic issues
Royal Commission housing
This was the highest social class of the Victorian England social hierarchy. The people under this class did not work manually. Their income normally came from the investments made by them or from the inherited lands.
Royal Class – This included people from royal family and the spiritual lords
Middle Upper Class – This class included officers of England, the baronets along with temporal lords.
Lower Upper Class – This class include country wealthy gentleman and large scale business men who had made their way with the immense wealth they possessed.
These were the people who used to work (actual jobs). They made their living from the salaries they got according to the job done. Relatively more rich than lower class but still weren't rich enough to be Lower Upper Class.
Higher Level Middle Class – These were high in terms of salaries and social status as compared to lower middle class.
Lower Level Middle Class – These were the people who worked on the orders of the higher level middle class people.
These were the group of labors. They got orders from Middle and Upper Class. Worked for wages. Common man. Not very rich still worked for their living.
Skilled Class – They had unskilled labors working under their supervision.
Unskilled Class – They were lowest category labor people.
This class was incorporated in England’s social system during Victorian era. These were sort of helpless people who depended on others. Didn't have jobs.
The Poor – These were poor people and orphans who relied on the charity of others. Some were exploited (prostitutes).
Emphasis on Modesty and Refrain
Queen Victoria was an advocate of extreme modesty unlike her predecessor (King William IV; the rogue king)
Clothing and behavior were modest
Love and sex were taboo topics
Fit in with the gender roles
Courtship and Romance were limited
Young women in this sphere were rarely left alone with men
“Dating” usually consisted of supervised visits at a young woman’s home or walks in large groups.
Any romantic interest lead to marriage.
"Old money" was land holdings and family history. Anything that was tradition rather than new to the industrial age.
"New money" was net worth. Tangible money rather than family assets.
Society valued "old money" more than "new money". Some professions were valued more than others even if they earned less
"Old Money" vs "New Money"
Emphasis of propriety lead to one's reputation being extremely important
Society had a detailed code of manners and etiquette (ex: "Our Deportment: Or, the Manners, Conduct and Dress of the Most Refined Society," by John H. Young )
Tied in with Christian ideals ( manners represented the core ideals of Christianity and would promote goodwill and peace within humanity at large.)
Science and Technology
Victorian art was produced by a series of artists who were mainly focused on the popularity of England's high-fashion and modern elegance, inspired by industrial growth
Lead to art that had a sense of modernity, finery and elegant etiquette
"high culture" was often expressed in art
Realism-centric style (Greek and Roman style art)
Brighter colours and more emotional strokes
Realistic details (shadows and form)
Brighter colour and emotional significance
Attention to detail and precision
Countryside of England and more rural common man sights
Classical elements of art
Art style varied a lot
Technological innovations particularly photographic and architectural changed styles
Changing views on decorum and aesthetics
Emotional and powerful art become more important to popular culture
0:00 & 9:18
Aspects of Literature
Charles Dickens (1812–1870)
Tale of Two Cities
Emily Brontë (1818–1848)
Lewis Carroll (1832–1898)
Alice in Wonderland
George Bernard Shaw (1856–1950)
Bram Stoker (1847–1912)
H.G. Wells (1866–1946)
War of Worlds
The class you were in determined what food you ate.
The poor had little food to eat, often only eating rotten vegetables and various forms of potato.
The lower to middle class ate a fair diet of meat, vegetables, and fresh milk.
The upper class usually ate meat and cheese daily, and often were very wasteful with their food.
Scientific discoveries during this period resulted in major developments towards the technologies and ideas of today.
Important figures from this time include:
William Thomson, The Honorable Lord Kelvin
and eat :3
Freud and his Work
Freud's many works include:
Creation of Psychoanalysis
Explored significance of dreams and the unconcious
Published The Interpretation of Dreams.
Daughter of Lord Byron and Anna Milbanke.
Known as the world's first computer programmer.
Predicted machines would be able to compose music, produce graphics and other functions.
Influenced by Charles Babbage, inventor of the Analytical Machine.
Wrote a program for the Analytical Machine.
Theory of evolution during his five year voyage around the worlds.
Detailed his theory in the book On Origin of Species.
Incredibly groundbreaking and new theory.