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# Forces of baseball

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## Ryan Peters

on 8 December 2013

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#### Transcript of Forces of baseball

Forces of baseball
There are many types and kinds of forces that occur in baseball. One of these is called destructive interference. This occurs when the bats "sweet spot" comes in contact with the baseball. What occurs here are two waves being created. One when the ball hits the bat, and another when the ball leaves. This makes the ball go very far. In fact, the newer aluminum bats have a longer sweet spot than the wooden ones, making it easier for a baseball travel further. Another force in baseball is unbalanced and balanced forces. Unbalanced forces occur when the ball is either hit or thrown. This is because when the ball is being thrown, the arm is putting enough force on the ball to enable it to be in motion. One pitch that pitchers use so the batter won't be able to hit the ball is called a fastball, which generates more force and speed than a normal pitch. This requires the batter to use more strength to get the ball to go anywhere. Balanced forces occur when the ball is being caught. This is because to stop the ball, the force that is used to catch it must be equal to the baseball, creating a balanced force.
Friction in baseball
Friction occurs a lot in baseball. One type of friction that occurs is air resistance. Air resistance occurs typically occurs when the ball is thrown. There are many different types of throws that all experience air resistance. For an example, the one I'll talk about is the curve ball. When the pitcher throws a curve ball, what is occurring is the top of the baseball is spinning directly into the air while the bottom of the baseball is spinning with the air flow. This causes the force on the bottom part of the ball to be less than the top part of the ball. Since it is an unbalanced force, it causes the ball to move downwards. The baseball also plays a big role in the curve ball. Baseballs are made with 108 raised stitches. Since these stitches are raised, they cause more friction to the top of the ball , which creates more pressure. This makes curve balls much easier to throw. Another type of friction that occurs is sliding friction. This happens when the batter is sliding to another base because his pants are sliding across another surface which is the dirt.
Gravity plays a large role in baseball. In fact, if we didn't have gravity, baseball would be a totally different game. One type of gravity that occurs is called a projectile. A projectile occurs when the ball is thrown or hit in baseball. For example, when the ball is hit, a force is created that dictates the height and distance the baseball will go. Once the ball has been hit, the only force that acts upon the ball is actually gravity. But, how hard you must hit the ball depends on velocity, which is another form of gravity. The faster the velocity the harder you must hit to allow the ball to go anywhere. Most batters are able to hit a very hard projectile by waiting for the ball to "dip" then hitting it. When a ball dips it is at a certain angle that will cause the ball to go further with a good amount of height and distance.
Gravity In Baseball
Newton's 1st law in baseball
Newtons first law is that an object moving at a constant velocity will stay at a constant velocity, and an object at rest stays at rest, unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. One example of this occurring in baseball is when the ball is hit. For example, when the ball is moving towards the batter it is moving at constant velocity, then when the bat strikes it, it puts an unbalanced force on the baseball making it travel. Now an example for when the ball is at rest, is when the ball is thrown. While the pitcher is holding the ball it is at rest, but as soon as it is thrown, a unbalanced force acts on it, which also causes it to move. Without this law, the baseball might just go on forever without stopping.

Newton's 2nd law in baseball
Newtons 2nd law states that the two factors of an objects acceleration are the objects mass, and the amount of force being exerted on the object. This occurs as well when the ball is thrown. For example, let's say the ball is 5 newtons. If you don't exert at least 6 newtons of force on the ball, it won't move it all. So when the pitcher throws the ball he must exert enough force on it to allow it to accelerate. The stronger the throw the farther it will go, and the lighter the object the farther it will go.
Newton's 3rd law in baseball
Newtons third law states that when one objects comes in contact with
another one, the second object will move in the opposite direction away from the first, with the same amount of force it was hit with. This happens in baseball when the batter is running toward home plate and trucks the catcher. When the catcher is hit, he will fall backwards away from the batter, carrying the same amount of force that he was hit with. Newtons third also occurs when the ball is hit, because when the bat hits the ball, the ball goes in the opposite direction with the same force as well.
Action Reaction Pairs in Baseball
Action Reaction pairs mean that to every action, there is a reaction. In baseball this is very common. Here is the action reaction force between a baseball bat and a baseball. The baseball forces the bat to the left; the bat forces the ball to the right. In this case since two forces are being exerted on two different objects, they both form a action reaction pair.
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