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Babies

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Allison Byrd

on 10 February 2014

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Transcript of Babies

Milestone 1
Infant Speech Perception

Milestone 3
Category Formation
"The ability to form categories, or to group items and events according to the perceptual and conceptual features they share, is crucial for language development." (Turnbull, 161)
Awareness of Actions and Intentions
Hierarchical structure of categories
Infants must be able to:
-Hear meaningful phrases and words.
-Adapt at detecting speech patterns.
-Learn to break speech down into smaller units.

Category formation is hierarchical and includes three levels:
superordinate
uppermost level
describes the most general concept in a particular category including words such as food, clothing, and furniture
subordinate
lowest level
describes specific concepts in a category
basic
middle level
describes general concepts including words such as apple, chair, and shirt

By 9 months:
-English learning infants prefer to listen to words containing strong-weak stress patterns.
Perceptual Categories
Infants form these perceptual categories based on similar appearing features that include color, shape, texture, size, and so on.
used to recognize and identify object around them
At 3 months, infants can distinguish between cats and dogs.
By 4 months, they can distinguish between animals and furniture.

Characteristics of speech include:
frequency
, or pitch, of sounds; and the
intensity
, or loudness, of sounds.
Conceptual Categories
Stress-prominence placed on certain syllables

Intonation-prominence placed on certain syllables, as well as phrases and sentences.

Duration- length of sounds, and the intensity, or loudness of sounds
Requires infants to know what something is and what it does
Examples include: knowing that...
balls rolls
dogs bark
airplanes fly
Example:
A real penguin and a toy penguin


Infants
Furniture
Superordinate
Basic
Lamp
Basic
Chair
Basic
Table
Subordinate
Floor lamp
Milestone 4: Early Vocalization
Subordinate
Desk Chair
Subordinate
Nightstand
1-4 Months
3-8 Months
9-18 Months
5-10 Months
0-2 Months
Reflexive
The first kind of sounds infants produce are called reflexive sounds, which include sounds of discomfort and distress (crying, fussing) and vegetative sounds such as burping, coughing, and sneezing.
They have no control over the reflexive sounds they produce, and adults often respond as if these reflexes are true communication.
Control of Phonation
Infants begin to produce
cooing
and
gooing
sounds.
They may also combine vowel-like segments with a consonate-like segment.
Other sounds include isolated consonate sounds such as nasalized sounds.
Example: "raspberries, gooo"
Expansion
Infants gain more control over the articulators and begin to produce isolated vowel sounds as well as vowel glides.
They may also use
marginal babbling
, an early type of babbling containing consonate-like and vowel-like sounds with prolonged transitions between the consonate and vowel sounds.
Basic canonical syllables
Infants begin to produce single consonant-vowel syllables.
Babbling also emerges in this stage and it may be reduplicated or nonreduplicated.
Reduplicated babbling consists of repeating C-V pairs, as in "ma ma ma," whereas nonreduplicated babbling consists of nonrepeating C-V combinations, such as "da ma goo ga."
Advanced Forms
Infants begin to produce diphthongs, which are combinations of two vowel sounds within the same syllable, as in the combination of sounds in boy and the combinations of sounds in fine.
The most advanced form stage is jargon. Jargon is a special type of babbling that contains at least two syllables and at least two different consonants and vowels, as well as varied stress of intonation patterns.
At this stage, infants are still experimenting with the sounds of their native language.
Infants are sensitive to actions and movement surrounding them. By the age of four months, infants can distinguish between purposeful and accidental actions, and they appear to focus on the intentions underlying actions rather than the physical details of the actions.
Over the first year, infants learn to view human actions as goal-directed, meaning that they pay attention to the outcomes and objective to which humans direct their actions rather than no other superficial perceptual properties of the event.
Early Stages
Infants do not waste time :
-Paying Bills
-Preparing Dinner
-Walking the Dog
They devote all their time to taking in all the sights and sounds surrounding them.
Stager and Werker
Infants who are not yet learning words, devote most attention to phonetic details of speech.

Older children focus on word learning.
Speech
Adults - group speech sounds into categories that are meaningful

Infants - are able to detect the smallest differences in speech sounds
Because of this, it is crucial that a baby recieves proper modeling of speech!
Milestone 2
Full transcript