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Early Childhood Caries in Egypt

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Karim El Mofty

on 2 March 2017

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Transcript of Early Childhood Caries in Egypt

Status of Caries and
Early Childhood caries

in Egypt
Middle East

Africa & other countries.

(1962, Zahran), a group of school's children 12 years old:
-In Simbillawein, mean DMF was 1.6 teeth per child.
-In Luxor it was 2.8 teeth per child.
(1973, Zahran) in Badrashein children,
- Mean DMF teeth at the ages of 6, 8 and 13 years was respectively 0.4, 1.0 and 2.5.
(1974, Zahran)

-Subjects were 1740 of both sexes of 7 year old

- The mean DMFT at age 12 years of both groups was 2.6 per child.

- 0.5 DMFT at 7 years to 3.2 DMFT at 13 years .

- He added that most of the children from 7 years to 13 years are caries free with a median value of 2.3 DMFT . Moreover all the cavities are of the simple pit and fissure variety.
(1986, El-Beheri)
- The dental caries among 1793 Egyptian school children of high and low socioeconomic levels was studied.

- Their age ranged from 6-12 year old. He found that caries prevalence increases by age.

- As regard sex, caries prevalence represented by DMFT ranged from 1.61 to 2.1 for boys & 1.90 to 2.55 for girls.
(1990, El Shehaby)
The sample size was 2061 of both sexes aged 3-6 years.
- Mean caries prevalence "dmft” of low & high socioeconomic levels were 2.869+_4.165 & 1.205 ± 2.641 respectively.
(1991, MOHP)

- Sample size 56000 of both sexes of age group from 0-60 year old from all governorates.

- Mean DMFT score at age group 12-15 years was 18.

- Mean DMFT of age group 15-20 years was 1.72.
(1994, WHO) The dental caries prevalence at 12 year old age allover the world.

- Egypt was 2.9 at 1973 while it was 1.2 at (1991) Furthermore, Egypt was classified' as one of the countries of low caries prevalence (1.2-2.6).
(1996, El Sayed) The prevalence of dental caries among children aged 3-12
- defs reached its maximum level at the age of 8-9 when it was 10.21
- mean DMFs reached its maximum level at age of 11-12 year when it was4.32.
(1996, MOW)
- Mean dmft of primary teeth at age of 3-5 years was 1.4 ±0.7 while it was 1.6 ±0.9 at age of 6-9 years .
- Mean DMFT in the permanent teeth at age group 12-15 years was 0.8± 0.3 and 1.5± 0.5 at age group 15-20 years.
The mean DMFT increases with the advancement of age reaching 6.05 ±1.6 and 11.2 ±6.7 for age groups 35-45 and 60-74 respectively.
(1996, MOHP)
- Water fluoride level in Sohag was 0.52 ppm and in Assuit was 0.13.

- Mean DMFT in Sohag was 1.1 and 3.9 in age 15-20 and 35-45 respectively while.

- In Assuit it was 1.74 and 6.1 in the same age respectively.
April 2008, “Pilot educational intervention for dental caries prevention among 6 to 12 years old school children in Alexandria” Egyptian Dental Journal , 54, 1449:1454, April:
Dental caries is still considered a public health problem for the following reasons:
-Among high socioeconomic status population, caries is relatively high because of the over consumption of refined sugars and fast food.

- Among the disadvantaged and lower socioeconomic status population, caries is also still high because of the lack of awareness and lack of oral hygiene.

- Since dental treatment is very expensive, teeth are unfortunately left untreated or they are extracted because of pain.
" .... caries prevalence had significantly decreased among egyptian school children in the last decade... "(Abdel Aziz WE. Oral Health survey in governorate of Alexandria)
2009, Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 3(2): 720-730, 2009 ISSN 1991-8178
- Relationship Between Salivary Composition and Dental Caries among a Group of Egyptian down Syndrome Children
Abou El-Yazeed, M., Taha, S., El shehaby, F., SALEM, G.

- A total of 30 Egyptian children were included in this study, their ages ranged from eight to fourteen years.

- The result of this study revealed that caries incidence in children with Down syndrome was lower than that of the control group.

-The results of this study show that the DMF was lower in Down syndrome group than in the control children.

2011, Life science journal, volume 8, issue 1, 2011
Dental caries prevalence among a group of Egyptian nurseries children,
Abou El Yazeed M, Rashed M., El Sayed M, Salah A

- 999 Egyptian children 496 boys and 503 girls with their ages ranged from three years to less than six years.
- Dental caries prevalence was high among the study subjects (60.4%) with the mean dmf value 3.31+_ 3.99.
- Comparison between caries experience in boys and girls shows that the dmf values for girls had higher prevalence.
(2006, Awad)
- Reviewing the patients assessment charts of the patients attending the petdiatric dentistry department, faculty of oral and dental medicine, Cairo University throughout the year 2003-2004.
- The prevalence of early childhood caries among the children attending the department clinics was 8.022%, while boys showed higher caries prevalence than girls.
(1997, Abd El-Monem)In Giza governorate 2073 nurseries children, age ranged from 1-4 years:
The prevalence of dental caries was 14.32% with females were more affected more than males.
(1967) Fluoride content of water and low
caries experience among Egyptians:
Leonard M. Kraska and Mohamed

A previous study (M. Zahran, Egypt .
dent. j., 8:20, 1962) showed that

In Mansoura, where the DMF value was
2.15 the fluorosis index was 0.023, or
practically none.

In Simbillawein, where the DMF value
was lower (1.16), the fluorosis index was

Fluoride concentration in Mansoura varied from a
low of 0.10ppm to a high of 0.68ppm, with an average of 0.31ppm of fluoride.

The Simbillawein tap water had a low of 0.07ppm and a high of 0.95ppm, with an average of 0.69ppm.
From the online literature, that was the available info.

Which revealed the the need for a larger scale screening project providing more current and accurate info about the status of ECC in Egypt.
By, El Mofty et al.?
(2003, Al Tantawy) The prevalence of dental caries among the 6 year old children was estimated to be 79.94% for primary teeth and 5.9% for permanent teeth.
389 boys and 373 girls, school children (6-12 years) in Libya were the subject.
- 321 (42.1%) pupils did not brush their teeth, with significant differences in the different areas.

- The prevalence of dental caries was 61.9%, with no significant sex difference.

- At 12 years, DMF was 1.63, the average decay per child was 1.26 and the prevalence of dental caries was 50%
2011 Prevalence and severity of dental caries in Libyan schoolchildren.
Huew R, Waterhouse PJ, Moynihan PJ, Maguire A.Source;
- The prevalence of dental caries was 57.8%.
- The mean DMFT and DMFS indices were 1.68 (SD ± 1.86) and 2.39 (SD ± 3.05) for all subjects,
2.90 (SD ± 1.56) and 4.14 (SD ± 2.97) for subjects with caries experience
1993 The prevalence of caries in groups of children aged 4-5 and 7-8 years in Khartoum, Sudan.
Raadal M, Elhassan FE, Rasmussen P.
- 544 children from Khartoum, were examined for dental caries.

- The mean dmft was 1.68 in the 4-5 year group, and 58% of them were caries-free.

- In the 7-8 year group the mean dmft (molars and canines) was 2.77, and 33% of the children were caries-free. Most of the caries in both groups was untreated.
J. M. Birkeland . Y. E. Ibrahim . I. A. Ghandour . O. Haugejorden
Severity of dental caries among 12-year-old Sudanese children with different fluoride exposure
- 299 school children aged 11–13 years.Only molars were recorded.

- The fluoride concentrations of the drinking water were assessed in 25 samples, Children in Abu Delaig, drinking water with 1.0–2.0 mg fluoride/L (median = 1.8), had significantly higher caries prevalence (21% versus 8%) than in a 0.4 mg fluoride area.

- There was no difference in caries prevalence between the lowest and the highest fluoride (2.9 mg) area.
(2009) Prevalence of Dental Caries among Type I Diabetic children in Sudan
N Neil, E.M Awooda, E.I Albasheir
- 63 Type I diabetics from Ja’far Ibn Ouf Children’s Hospital (Khartoum) and 63 control subjects with a mean age of 13± 3.19 years.

- Dental caries of diabetic subjects was 60.3% with a DMFT index of 0.09, while that of the control group was 85.7% with a DMFT index of 0.20.

- The prevalence of dental caries and DMFT index were higher in the control group than in the diabetic children.
(2011) Aspects of Dental Caries in Sudanese SchoolchildrenNurelhuda, Nazik Mostafa:
- 1109 schoolchildren,
- The mean DMFT for 12-year-old was 0.42.
- The untreated caries prevalence in the sample (deciduous and permanent teeth) was 30.5%.
- The DMFT disclosed that 24% of the children had caries in permanent teeth.
Prevalence of caries in:
- 4 year olds was 62%, dmft 3.1
- 5 year olds it was 73%, dmft 4.1
Caries in preschool children in Amman, Jordan and the relationship to socio-demographic factors.Sayegh A, Dini EL, Holt RD, Bedi R.
(2000) Dental caries among schoolchildren: report of a health education campaign in Jeddah; M.B.S. Gandeh and W.A. Milaat
- 82 250 (50.3% screened in 1996 and 49.7% screenedin 1997).

- The general prevalence rate of positively detected cases of any level of dental caries was 83% among children in both the first and fourth grades for the 2 years.
(2002) Caries prevalence in Saudi primary schoolchildren of Riyadh and their teachers’ oral health knowledge, attitude and practicesAmjad H Wyneo,  Bandare M Al-Ghorabit,  Yahia A Al-Asiri,  Nazeere B Khano
- The prevalence of caries among the sample was 94.4%.
- The mean dmf for primary teeth of the sample was 6.3 (+3.5)
- The mean DMF score for permanent teeth of the sample was 1.6 (+1.5)
Caries prevalence and its relation to water fluoride levels among schoolchildren in Central Province of Saudi Arabia.
Al Dosari AM, Wyne AH, Akpata ES, Khan NB.
- 1,104 children; 431 (6-7-year-old) primary schoolchildren and 673 (12-13-year-old) intermediate schoolchildren were examined for dental caries.

- The prevalence of caries was 91.2%.
Prevalence of First Permanent Molar Caries in and Its Relationship to the Dental Knowledge of 9–12-Year Olds from Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaKhalid H. M. Al-Samadani1 and Mohammad Sami Ahmad2
- 108 children from each age group of 9, 10, 11, and 12 years old.
In total, 24.5% had all of their First Permanent Molars sound and 6% had all FPMs carious.

The children who had received advice regarding oral hygiene from a dentist or parent had more sound FPMs compared to the children who did not receive any advice.
A systematic review of population-based dental caries studies among children in Saudi ArabiaDania Ebrahim Al Agili
The earliest study was published in 1988 and the most recent was published in 2010
- Approx. 80% for the primary dentition with a mean dmft of 5.0
- Approx. 70% for children’s permanent dentition with a mean DMFT score of 3.5
The explanation of the increase of caries prevalence was suggested to be due to increased consumption of sugars in developing countries (Enwonwu, 1981).
For many years it has been suggested that the prevalence of dental caries in Africa and other developing countries has been dramatically increased ( Franken et al, 1986).
Dental caries continues to be a major
problem in dentistry' and receive
significant attention in every day
practice, not only from
the stand-point of restorative procedures
but also in terms of preventive practices
designed to reduce the prob.
(McDonald and Avery, 1987)
In China, the mean DMFT at the age of 12-year-old children was found to be 1.3 ( Murray, 1994).
It has been reported that industrialized countries are experiencing a decline in the rate of decayed, missed and filled teethwhile the incidence of dental caries in developing countries especially under the age of 5 years is increasing rapidly ( Rabab’h et al 1998 ).
The incidence and prevalence of caries has declined in industrialized countries over the last years of the 20th century ( CDC,1999 ).
In Niger, the mean DMFT at the age of 12-year-old children was found to be 1 ( Peterson and Kaka 1999).
in USA ,despite the dramatic decline in dental caries among the population following the widespread practice of Fluoridation of public water supplies, tooth decay remained a major public health problem By age 17 years, 84% of US adolescents have experienced tooth decay in their permanent teeth- on average, involving eight tooth surfaces ( Mark et al., 1999)
The prevalence of dental caries and ............ all over the world was found to vary according to the geographic location, sex, socioeconomic level, fluoride content of water supplies, types of food and feeding habits and attitude of people, also on oral hygiene and dental care. (Din; et al, 2000)
In Japan, the mean DMFT at the age of 12-year-old children was found to be 2.4 ( Review of the national oral health surveys, 2000)
In Mexico, the mean DMFT at the age of 12-year-old-children was found to be 2.5 ( Trigoyen and Sanchez- Hinojosa 2000).
In Bangladesh the mean DMFT at the age of 12-year-old-children was found to be 1.0 ( Ullah, 2001).
In Australia the mean DMFT at the age of 12-year-old children was found to be 0.8 ( Armfield, 2001)
In Canadian children the prevalence in the last years of the 20th century was 33% to 55% lower than it was 20 years ago and manychildren had no decayed or filled teeth ( CDC, 2002 ).
In England and Wales, the mean DMFT at the age of 12-year-old children was found to be 0.9 ( Pitts, 2002)
In Sweden, the mean DMFT at the age of 12-year-old children was found to be 1.6 ( Murray, 1994).
In Germany, the mean DMFT at the age of 12 year-old-children was found to be 1.2 ( Pieper and Schulte, 2002)
(El Sharbati et al 2000)
Research and presentation in (2012) by:

Karim El Mofty, B.D.S, M.D.P.H

Supervised by:

Prof. Francisco Ramos-Gomez

Design modified later in 2017
Saudi Arabia
(1975, El Hadary et al.)

It was found that 60.2% of preschool children were affected by dental caries.
- (2004, Amany Edward Seedhom, Thesis), Minia University, Minia District.

- A total of 2002 child, 1001 male and 1001 female with an age ranging from 11-16 years,

- The mean DMFT was

(0.9±0.3) in 12 years old children among the studied preparatory school children.
(2002, Nagwa) A study performed on a group of children of El- Minia

- The mean DMFT at the age group 11-12 was 0.75+1.30 in males and 1.32+1.57 in females
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