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Copy of Chapter 20: The CommonWealth and The World War II (1935-1945)
Transcript of Copy of Chapter 20: The CommonWealth and The World War II (1935-1945)
The World War II (1935-1945) Tydings-McDuffie Law was written by Millard Tydings and John McDuffie and was approved in 1934. The law gave independence to the Philippinnes with a 10-year transition including U.S. military presence.
major contribution to the country as it enabled them to provide for the complete independence of the Philippine Islands, to provide for the adoption of a constitution and a form of government for the islands, and for other purposes.
As of 2/5/2009 it be came Public Law 73-727. was the historic predecessor to the present-day Republic of the Philippines from 1935 to 1946 when the country was a commonwealth of the United States.
was created by the Tydings-McDuffie Act, which was passed by the U.S. Congress in 1934.
had a strong executive and a Supreme Court. The legislature, dominated by the Nacionalista Party, was at first unicameral, but later bicameral.
The Commonwealth government was in exile from 1942–1945, when the Philippines was under Japanese occupation.
In 1946, the Commonwealth ended and the Philippines was proclaimed a republic. Millard Tydings John McDuffie The Commonwealth had its own constitution, which remained effective until 1973, and was self-governing.
It featured a very strong executive, a unicameral National Assembly, and a Supreme Court, all composed entirely of Filipinos, as well as an elected Resident Commissioner to the United States House of Representatives.
An American High Commissioner and an American Military Advisor, Douglas MacArthur headed the latter office from 1937 until the advent of World War II in 1941.
In 1939-40, after an amendment in the Constitution, a bicameral Congress, consisting of a Senate, and of a House of Representatives, was restored replacing the National Assembly. Structure The pre-1935 U.S. territorial administration, or Insular Government, was headed by a governor general who was appointed by the president of the U.S.
It was vetoed by President Herbert Hoover but the American Congress overrode his veto in 1933 and passed the bill.
A Constitutional Convention was convened in Manila on July 30, 1934. On February 8, 1935, the 1935 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines was approved by the convention by a vote of 177 to 1.
he constitution was approved by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on March 23, 1935 and ratified by popular vote on May 14, 1935.
On 17 September 1935, presidential elections were held. Candidates included former president Emilio Aguinaldo, the Iglesia Filipina Independiente leader Gregorio Aglipay, and others. Manuel L. Quezon and Sergio Osmeña of the Nacionalista Party were proclaimed the winners, winning the seats of president and vice-president, respectively.
he Commonwealth Government was inaugurated on the morning of November 15, 1935, in ceremonies held on the steps of the Legislative Building in Manila.
The event was attended by a crowd of around 300,000 people. Creation Pre-War The new government embarked on ambitious nation-building policies in preparation for economic and political independence.
These included national defense (such as the National Defense Act of 1935, which organized a conscription for service in the country), greater control over the economy, the perfection of democratic institutions, reforms in education, improvement of transport, the promotion of local capital, industrialization, and the colonization of Mindanao. World War II Japan launched a surprise attack on the Philippines on December 8, 1941. The Commonwealth government drafted the Philippine Army into the U.S. Army Forces Far East, which would resist Japanese occupation. Manila was declared an open city to prevent its destruction,and it was occupied by the Japanese on January 2, 1942.
Quezon and Osmeña were escorted by troops from Manila to Corregidor, and later they left for Australia and then the U.S. There they set up a government in exile, which participated in the Pacific War Council as well as the Declaration by United Nations.
Meanwhile, the Japanese military organized a new government in the Philippines known as the Second Philippine Republic, which was headed by president José P. Laurel. This government ended up being very unpopular.
The American General Douglas MacArthur's army landed on Leyte on 20 October 1944, and they were all welcomed as liberators, along with Philippine Commonwealth troops when other amphibious landings soon followed.
After the War in the Philippines, the Commonwealth was restored, and a one-year transitional period in preparation for independence began. Elections followed in April 1946 with Manuel Roxas winning as the first president of the independent Republic of the Philippines and Elpidio Quirino winning as vice-president. The Third Republic
(1946-1969) The transition government ended in 1945, the same year that World War II came to an end.
In July 4,1946, the Third Philippine Republic was inaugurated at the Luneta in Manila.
Among the distinguished American guests were General Douglas MacArthur, supreme commander of the Allied Power in Japan; General Millard Tydings, co sponsor- of the Philippine Independence Act; and former Governor General F.B. Harrison, the most beloved American governor-general in the Philippines.
The most meaningful and solem moment of the independence ceremonies was the raising of the Philipines flag by President Roxas and the lowering of the American flag by Ambassador McNutt to the accompaniment of the national anthems of the two nations. At this significant moment in the history of the Filipino nation, church bells throughout the Philippines were rang to announce the freedom of the Philippines. After the flag ceremony, and Vice-President Elpidio Quirino again took their oath of office, this time as president and Vice-President of the third Republic of the Philippines. Thus Roxas was recorded the last President of the Commonwealth and the First President of the Republic.