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SlA & approaches to teaching

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Marija Ivanovic

on 6 September 2017

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Transcript of SlA & approaches to teaching

Second language
Acquisition & learning

Second language acquisition & learning
Krashen's model (5 hypotheses)
Cognitivist perspectives
information processing
the competition model
The sociocultural perspective
copy and paste as needed and take advantage of an infinite canvas!
Universal grammar- the innatist perspective
Krashen's model
Cognitivist perspectives
Sociocultural perspective
5 hypotheses
Vygotsky's understanding> language development arises as a result of social interaction- mediation
mediation happens through symbolic tools: music, art, arithmetic symbols, LANGUAGE
learning occurs when an individual interacts with an interlocutor within his or her Zone of Proximal Development
focus on co-construction of knowledge based on their interaction with the interlocutor,
knowledge then appropriated by the learner
Information processing
The Competition Model
from 1990's onwards
draws on neourobiology
observes the activity directly in the brain
computer as the metaphor for the mind> storing, integrating & retrieving information
Norman Segalowitz
language acquisition as the building-up of knowledge that can be called on automatically
'pay attention' > using cognitive resources to process information
in early stages learners use lot of resources to understand, gradually becoming automatic
proficient speakers are more automatic in processing , e.g. listening> focus on the overall meaning, other learners use more of their attention on processing the meaning of individual words
explains why SLL need more time to understand the text

Nick Ellis
importance of the environment> frequency with which the larners encounter specific linguistic features in the input and the frequecy with which features occur together
learners gradually build-up their knowledge of language through exposure to thousand of instances of the linguistic features
language learned in 'chunks', however what happens with complex sentences?
Elisabeth Bates & Brian MacWhinney
language acquisition occurs without the necessity for learner's focused attention
not only language form but also meaning and use
learning happens through exposure
cues help learners figure out the meaning (word order, grammatical markers)
transfer and interference from the first language
emergentist theory> language must be embodied and situated
learning occurs through imitation, practice, reinforcement
Nelson Brooks & Robert Lado
Audiolingual method> classroom activities through mimicricy, memorization, learning by heart
Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis> for errors prediction
Language development viewed as a habit formation
1) the acquisition-learning hypothesis
2) the monitor hypothesis
3) the natural order hypothesis
4) the input hypothesis
5) the affective filter hypothesis
1) acquisition> when we are exposed to the language; learning> through conscious attention
2) conscious learning has a limited function, can only be used as monitor
3) second language unfolds in predictable sequences
4) acquisition occurs when the learner is exposed to comprehensible input + 1> a step beyond the current level
5) feelings, motives, needs, attitudes, emotional states
based on Chomsky's theory of Universal Grammar> innate knowledge of UG permits all children to acquire the language of their environment during a critical period
SLLs also possess Universal Grammar
SLA> Vivian Cook> SLLs know more about the language than they could have reasonably been exposed to
interested in advanced learners> what learners know about the language, how close they are to native speakers
pillars of the module
1) language & terminology
2) language acquisition & processes
3) intercultural competence in language teaching
4) teaching of bilingual pupils
2) When we produce an utterance in the second language, it is initiated by the acquired system, we can use the Monitor to make changes in our utterances only after it has been generated by the acquired system

>>>> rules we learn in class are not responsible for the fluency, but have the function of making repairs
conscious learning is not used to initiate production in a second language

3) natural order hypothesis- related to morphology- how morphemes are acquired

ing (progressive) -> plural-> copula-> auxiliary (progressive)-> article->
irregular past-> regular past-> 3rd singular-> possessive (-s)

5 hypotheses
universal grammar
cognitivist model
learning formation of habits
humans possess internal device
exposure to the language, emerging process
interaction with others
5??? Academic writing
Structure of the course
accessing the sources
student charter
assessment & examination
getting to know each other
accessing the sources
some materials will be on fronter
most in the library
set aside a day to access & organize the reading materials
you can find lots of books on the internet
activity: in groups, have a look at the semester plan and formulate 1-2 questions
Assessment & evaluation
no numerical evaluation in the first semester
module completion obligations
mandatory attendance & participation
study products
in different formats--> artefacts
language portfolio
feedback, feedforward
group work
examples of what active participation is not: watching films, videos, chatting, telephoning, shopping, searching for jobs, travels in lessons etc.
autonomous & collaborative learning
courteous communication
facebook communication
student charter
In groups, have a look at the student charter and formulate 1 or 2 questions to Marija :)
Sociocultural perspective: implications
private speech- many utterances incorporated within the narrative of the second language subject example of this (McCafferty, 1994): object-regulation, other-regulation, self-regulation
e.g. task to describe a picture
types of second language private speech:
repetition - the learners privately repeat utterances of the teacher
vicarious response- responds privately to a question from a teacher, or repaired someone else's utterance
manipulation- privately constructed their own second language utterances, manipulating sentence structure
Implications for instruction:
reception: gain students' attention using stimulus
retrieval: stimulate prior learning from long term-memory
receive information: display content with distinctive features
respond: elicit performance
reinforce: provide ongoing feedback & require additional performance
short-term memory
fossilization in
long-term memory
elaborative rehearsal
input--> intake
Zone of proximal development & private speech
self-regulation: ability to be autonomous
children need adult guidance--> other-regulation
the process of supportive dialogue is called SCAFFOLDING
ZPD- the domain of knowledge where the learner is not yet capable of independent functioning, but can achieve the goal through scaffolding
private speech- talking to and for themselves-> growing self-regulation, becomes then inner speech
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