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Photograghic Camera


alex o

on 23 April 2010

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Transcript of Photograghic Camera

Photograghic Camera By:
Hannah F.
Brian Granger
Jack M.
Alex Orest Johann Zahn, a German, was the person who first designed a small camera in 1685, but it took many more years for this design to prove successful. Alexander Wolcott's camera design was patended in 1840, and took pictures that did not fade with time. He also opened the first photography shop in New York.
The first permanant picture was taken by Nicéphore Niépce's camera in 1826. He used a sliding wooden box to capture. Niépce invented the first permanent camera becuase he did not have a steady enough hand to trace the inveted images, which was common for his time. He wanted to invent something that captured an image forever, and he tried many different methods, but eventually settled on bitumen. In 1727 J Schulze mixed chalk, nitric acid, and silver in a flask, and accidentally created the first photo-sensitive compoud. He noticed that the flask darkened when exposed to sunlight. Louis Daguerre created an image on silver-plated copper, and developed it with mercury. He was awarded a state pension when he published his methods and the rights to other French to use his process. In London, a sculptor named Frederick Schott Archer uses a new mixture of collodion and chemicals on a sheet of glass in 1851. This technique was much less expensive, allowed photographers to make unlimited reproductions, and the process was not yet patented. In Paris in 1854, Adolphe Disderi invents carte-de-visite photography, which generated an explosion in portrait studios for the next ten years. The first color photography was invented by a Scott, James Clerk-Maxwell in 1861. He took three black and white pictures using a red, green or blue filter. This is called the "color seperation" method. Mathew Brady and his staff captured the Civil War through photography, exposing 7,000 negatives. In 1870 the US Congress sent photographers to the West. Tim O'Sullivan and William Jackson took the most famous images. In 1871 the process of "dry plate" is produced by an English doctor, Richard Leach Maddox. It is the use of an emulsion or gelatin and silver bromide on a glass plate. Seven years later, dry plates are being produced commercially. The first half-tone photo appears in a daily newspaper, the New York Graphic, in 1880. The first Kodak camera is produced in 1888, containing a twenty-foot rool of paper, enough for 100 circular pictures. A year later an improved version is produced, which uses film instead of paper. Sir John F.W. Herschel coined the word "photography", and it is derived from two Greek words: photos meaning light and graphein meaning draw. Commercially avaliable film was invented in the early 1940s, using dye-coupled colors and a chemical process blends three dye layers to create a color image.
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