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Transcript of Tissue Engineering
Engineering?? The creation of synthetic or semi-synthetic tissue that can be used instead of human tissue in surgery. Is the use of bioengineering techniques to manipulate the biological functions of tissues (aggregates of cells). When cells are amassed into complex formations, such as a whole organ. They must create systems for transport of nutrients, regulation of growth, and other processes. Artificial pancreas
research involves using islet cells to produce and regulate insulin, particularly in cases of diabetes. In Vitro Meat — Edible artificial animal muscle tissue cultured in vitro. Bioartificial Liver Device — several research efforts have produced hepatic assist devices utilizing living hepatocytes. Cartilage
lab-grown tissue was successfully used to repair knee cartilage. Artificial Skin constructed from human skin cells embedded in collagen. Artificial Bladders - has successfully implanted artificially grown bladders into seven out of approximately 20 human test subjects as part of a long-term experiment. ELEMENTS OF TISSUE ENGINEERING Matrix (Scaffold)
Porous, absorbable synthetic (polyglycolic., polyglycolic acid) and natural (ex. collagen) biomaterials. Cells (Autologous / Allogeneic)
Differentiated cells of same type as tissue
Stem cells (ex. bone marrow).
Other cell types (ex. dermal cells). Soluble Regulators Soluble - Growth factors or their genes. Multi-scale Modeling In
Bone Tissue Engineering Artificial Bones ENVIRONMENTAL
Loading Static versus dynamic (bio-reactor)
provide both the technological means to reveal fundamental mechanisms of cell function in a 3D environment.
the potential to improve the quality of engineered tissues. CELLS FOR
ENGINEERING Autologous from the same individual. Allogeneic from a different individual Xenogeneic from a different species. Syngenic or Isogenic Cells are isolated from genetically identical organisms, such as twins, clones, or highly inbred research animal models. Primary cells are from an organism.
Secondary cells are from a cell bank. Stem cells (stem cell) are undifferentiated cells with the ability to divide in culture and give rise to different forms of specialized cells. Embryonic Stem Cell are cultured cell lines derived from the inner cell mast of the blastocyst that can be grown indefinitely in their undifferentiated state yet also are capable of differentiating into all cells of the adult body. Two sources of Stem Cell
Fertilized egg from in vitro fertilization
Ovum that has had nucleus removed and nuclear material injected from intended recipient of final tissue product (reproductive/therapeutic cloning) BASIC PRINCIPLES OF TISSUE ENGINEERING WHAT PROGRESS HAS BEEN MADE TO DATE?? Autologous stem cells have been injected into heart to regenerate damaged cardiac tissue. Corneal autologous stem cell grafts have been used to treat eye disease & trauma. Skin replacement has been grown with stem cells for transplant in burn victims. Autologous stem-cell cartilage grafts have been used to treat joint disease. Leukemia & other cancers have been treated with stem cells from bone marrow and umbilical cord blood. A human mandible has been produced using a titanium mesh and autologous bone-marrow stem cells. CAD / CAM (computer-aided-design / computer-aided-manufacturing) bioreactor system:
Use to support incubation for growth of cells and tissues. Many things can be explain by science of you dare to open your mind… T