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MDM4U (Mathematics of Data Management) Culminating Project

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Abigail Theivendrarajah

on 20 May 2014

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Transcript of MDM4U (Mathematics of Data Management) Culminating Project

Problems cont.
Table Of Contents:
Summary
Problems
Plan
Biases
Data
Analysis
Conclusions
Bibliography
Summary
Problem
Main Thesis Question: What are the factors influencing whether or not people will go to university or college concerning the gender of the individuals chosen for the survey, family members that may have attended a post-secondary education and the cost/distance of University or College that may either compel or hesitate an applicant from applying?

Sub-questions:
1. What possible factors could cause a certain gender to more so pursue a post-secondary education in comparison to their counterparts? (i.e. University)
2. Could an older sibling effect a younger siblings motivation or mind set to either attend college or university? Are they more likely to follow their foot steps?
3. Do parents have a detrimental effect on their child's choice to attend a post-secondary education? And do they have their own personal reasoning's as to what they want their children to do with their future endeavors?
4. Does financial stability determine where you go for post-secondary education? (ex. A further university would be more costly in comparison to a university that could be commuted too.)

Hypothesis: If there are family members dwelling in a household that have not received a post-secondary education, then the majority of their children will or will not attend university or college because they would want their children to pursue the same path as well or on the other hand they may not push that life choice on them due to the fact that they themselves never attended post-secondary education. Also, the concept of cost and distance playing a role on the individual planning on attending post-secondary, because of the fluctuation in tuition fees and residential fees make students reluctant on going to farther universities. Finally, the last factor contributing to this topic is the concept of gender and which gender is more likely to attend either university or college.
Data
Plan
Sampling Method:
The sampling method used was cluster random sampling, because we had divided the grade 12 population into 4 classes that we had believed to best represent the grade 12 population as a whole.
- Ms. Nieuwstraten’s College Families in Canada Class (Social Science)
- Ms. Gow’s College Writer’s Craft Class (English Related)
- Mr. Aniekwe’s University Physics Class (Science)
- Mr. Basista’s University Data Management Class (Math)

We had thought these would give a good depiction of the mind sets of grade 12 students concerning post-secondary education, because of the variety in course load, subject matter, level of difficulty and possible field opportunities.

A survey was used to gather data for our research, as well as a collection of secondary data
.





Problems faced while collecting data:
Analysis
1. What possible factors could cause a certain gender to more so pursue a post-secondary education in comparison to their counterparts? (i.e. University)
Biases
Sampling bias: Since only 72 grade twelves out of 434 were surveyed, not everyone got to voice their opinion.

Non-response bias: On a few occasions some people chose to not answer a survey, which led to more females polled than males.

Household bias: More females than males, and more university-bound than college-bound students.


MDM4U (Mathematics of Data Management) Culminating Project
Topic: Academic Achievement
By: Abigail Theivendrarajah &
Shankavi Chandrarajah

Problem: The following research was conducted in order to gather a clear understanding as to what factors may influence high school students to pursue a post-secondary education (i.e. university or college)

Plan -
Population: 2 Grade 12 College Classes, 2 Grade 12 University Classes = 72/ 434 Grade 12 Students (16 % of the population)
Measurement: A survey was conducted and handed out to grade 12 students attending J. Clarke Richardson Collegiate.

Data - The data collected was a primary source, as well we also gathered information from secondary sources. (such as: Statistics Canada, Macleans Magazine, and CBC News)

Analysis - To display our data, we used excel and fathom. But for presentation purposes we used a double bar graph, a pie chart and a box plot.

Conclusions -
Biases: The biases present were sampling bias, non-response bias and household bias.
Further Studies:
a) Collect data from each grade 12 student attending our school
b) Go to different schools in various regions and provinces, to get a better understanding.
The population of the data that was collected were two grade 12 College classes and two grade 12 University classes

Characteristics:
Grade 12 students during second semester that have attended J.Clarke Richardson that we have surveyed
The data was collected during 2014
Data was conducted in Ajax, Ontario

Independent Variables:
- Gender (Qualitative)
- Older Sibling/Parent who attends university (Qualitative)
- Cost/Distance of university (Quantitative)

Dependent Variables:
- Whether or not a student goes to university (Qualitative/Primary variable under investigation)

It is assumed that the surveys conducted by our secondary and primary sources are accurate.
- Survey questions not being answered to the full extent.
- There were more females than males that were surveyed.
- More University bound students in comparison to College bound.
- It's assumed that both our primary and secondary sources were accurately conducted and are honest.
- Making our own surveys and handing them out to our desired classes.
- We only surveyed students attending J. Clarke Richardson which doesn't give us a clear representation of the reality of students attending post-secondary education.
Male: Female:
Mean - 10.666667 Mean - 13.333333
Median - 9 Median - 18
Mode - N/A Mode - N/A

Q3 - 16 Q3 - 19.5
Q1 - 4.5 Q1 - 9.5
IQR = 11.5 IQR = 10

Standard Deviation = 11.59023 Standard Deviation = 10.78579
Figure 1: Data
2. Could an older sibling effect a younger siblings motivation or mind set to either attend college or university? Are they more likely to follow their foot steps?
Figure 2: Data
University: College:
Mean - 8.33333 Mean - 4.6666667
Median - 4 Median - 7
Mode - N/A Mode - 7

Standard Deviation - 10.21437 Standard Deviation - 4.041452

Q3 - 12 Q3 - 7
Q1 - 2.5 Q1 - 3.5
IQR = 9.5 IQR = 3.5
Figure 3: Data (University)
Mean - 14.66667
Median - 15
Mode - N/A

Standard Deviation - 11.50362

Q3 - 20.5
Q1 - 9
IQR = 11.5
Figure 3: Data (College)
Mean - 9
Median - 8
Mode - N/A

Standard Deviation - 3.605551

Q3 - 10.5
Q1 - 7
IQR = 3.5
4. Does financial stability determine where you go for post-secondary education? (ex. A further university would be more costly in comparison to a university that could be commuted too.)
Median -
<1: 3
2<: 3
Out: 3

Highest Point -
<1: 5
2<: 5
Out: 4

3. Do parents have a detrimental effect on their child's choice to attend a post-secondary education? And do they have their own personal reasoning's as to what they want their children to do with their future endeavors?
The majority of the people who chose 2< said their finances played a higher role.
Gender and University Attendance
Our survey results contrasted with a survey that we found which was conducted by CBC.
They had said that more women than men held university degrees, almost 65 % compared to 63 % of men.

But in our survey we found that there were more males than females that were planning on attending University.
This is also taking into account that more females than males were surveyed.
Conclusion

- It was concluded that older siblings greatly influence what their younger siblings do for post-secondary.

- You are 5 times more likely to attend university if your older sibling also attended, compared at if your older sibling went to college.

- University-bound students feel more pressure from their parents to attend university than college-bound students.

- 59% of University-bound students feel pressure compared at 30% of college-bound students.

- The higher the factor of finances chosen, the closer to home the students will stay for university.
Bibliography
- Grade 12 classes that were surveyed:
Ms. Nieuwstraten's College Families in Canada Class
Ms. Gow's College Writer's Craft Class
Mr. Aniekwe's University Physics Class
Mr. Basista's University Data Management Class


- Statistics and secondary data gathered from:
Government of Canada website
Maclean's Magazine
CBC News
Survey
1. What grade are you in? ____
2. What is your gender? ____
3. Do you want to pursue post-secondary education?
University College Other
4. Do you have an older sibling?
Yes No
5. If yes, what post-secondary to they attend?
University College Other
6. Did your parents receive a post-secondary education?
Yes No
7. If yes, did they attend college or university?
University College
8. Do you feel pressure from your parents to attend university?
Yes ___
No ___
I feel pressure to attend post-secondary, but not necessarily university ___
9. How much of a factor does money play in your decision to go to university/college?
1 2 3 4 5
Not a factor Huge factor
10. If you go to university or college would you commute or live on residence?
Commute Residence
11. Why would you commute to university/college?
Stay close to family ___
Not ready to move out ___
Too expensive to move out ___
12. How far away is the university/college you are planning on attending?
Less than an hour away _ More than 2 hours away _ Out of province _
Full transcript