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Chapter 7 Expanding Students' Knowledge of Words
Transcript of Chapter 7 Expanding Students' Knowledge of Words
Why is Vocabulary Knowledge Important?
Expanding Students’ Knowledge of Words
-They explicitly teach some words and word-learning strategies.
-They foster students’ interest in words.
Students learn the meanings of words by being immersed in an environment that’s rich with words, through lots of daily independent reading and interactive read-aloud, and through explicit instruction.
Word Study Activities
Allows for students to examine and think more clearly about the meanings of words
Can consist of visual representations, categorization, relatedness to other words etc.
Incidental Word Learning
Researchers report that reading is the single largest source of vocabulary growth for students.
The amount of time students spend reading independently is the best predictor of vocabulary growth between second and fifth grades.
Students need to read books at their independent reading levels.
If the books are too easy or too hard, students learn very few new words
....because they’ve chosen the books themselves, they’re more likely to keep reading.
SSR: Sustained Silent Reading is another way to encourage wide reading.
Even the teacher takes time to read, at the same time modeling how adults who enjoy reading make it part of their daily routine.
Students need to know how to use the context clues and other word-learning strategies to figure out the meaning of unfamiliar words to increase their vocabulary.
Students who participate in reading workshop, SSR, or another independent reading activity every day are more likely to become successful readers.
Teachers reinforce students’ learning in several important ways:
Vocabulary Club Activities:
-Using a Dictionary/Thesaurus
-Multiple Meanings of Words
-Adding Prefixes & Suffixes
-Studying Root Words
Students talked about the story in a “Grand Conversation”
Vocabulary Parade - Students dressed up in clothes or hats that represented a vocabulary word (ex: a wrinkled t-shirt to represent the word “wrinkle”)
Collection of vocabulary books in the classroom library
Book talks to introduce the books to the club members
Exclusion Brainstorming: the students predict which words relate to the article and which don’t
Square Poster: documents the students’ understanding of the root words.
Themes: Patriotic words, such as allegiance, citizen, equality, independence, and republic
Four Levels of Word Knowledge:
Unknown Word: Students don’t recognize the word.
Initial Recognition: Students have seen or heard the word or can pronounce it, but they don’t know the meaning.
Partial Word Knowledge: Students know one meaning of the word and can use it in a sentence.
Full Word Knowledge: Students know more than one meaning of the word and can use it in several ways.
Expanding Students’ Knowledge of Words
Children come to school with varying levels of word knowledge, both the number of words they know and in the depth of their understanding.
Students from low-income homes have less than half of the vocabulary that more affluent children possess; this gap widens each year.
Many students’ vocabulary grow at a rate of about 3,000 words a year, or roughly 7 to 10 new words every day.
Students learn most words incidentally, not through explicit instruction.
Reading has the greatest impact on students’ vocabulary development.
Other activities for learning words: family activities, hobbies, vacations, and television (educational programs).
Levels of Word Knowledge
Students develop knowledge about a word gradually, through repeated oral and written exposures to it.
They move from not knowing a word at all to recognizing that they’ve seen the word before, and then to a level of partial knowledge where they have a general sense of the word or know the meaning.
When students develop full word knowledge, they’re described as flexible word users because they understand the core meaning of a word and how it changes in different contexts.
Struggling readers need to know more words!
One of the biggest challenges facing struggling readers is their limited word knowledge.
To expand students’ vocabularies, it’s essential that teachers provide both daily activities to draw students’ attention to words and instruction on academic vocabulary and word-learning strategies.
Nurture students’ awareness of words using word walls, independent reading, and interactive read-aloud.
Explicitly teach the meanings of 8-10 words each week by introducing key words before reading and providing worthwhile practice activities afterward.
Develop students’ ability to figure out the meaning of unfamiliar words.
What Not To Do!
Students shouldn’t read books that are too difficult because they won’t understand what they’re reading.
Teachers can’t expect students to figure out the meaning of unfamiliar words when they’re reading if they haven’t been taught to use context clues or other word-learning strategies.
Students shouldn’t be given a list of words and asked to copy the definition for each word or write a sentence using it.
Teachers provide for incidental word learning when they read aloud stories and poems.
Vocabulary knowledge and reading achievement are closely related: Students with larger vocabularies are more capable readers.They know more strategies for figuring out the meanings of unfamiliar words than less capable readers do.Reading widely is the best way students learn new words.
How Do Students Learn Vocabulary?
Reading, hobbies, vacations, television.
Partial Word Knowledge.
Full Word Knowledge.
Incidental Word Learning
Although students learn vocabulary through various sources, research still proves reading is the single largest! Independent Reading.
Reading aloud to students.
Why Is Vocabulary Knowledge Important?
Students with high vocabulary are more capable readers!
“The rich get richer, and the poor get poorer!” is supported by the Mathew effect.
Guidelines for Teaching Vocabulary
Choose key words for vocabulary instruction from books students are reading and from thematic units and highlight them on word wall.
Scaffold students as they develop full word knowledge by learning multiple meaning, how root words and affixes affect meaning, synonyms, antonyms, word history, and figurative language.
During interactive read alouds, focus on specific high utility words. Teach students to use word learning strategies to unlock new words.
Multiple Meanings of Words
Develop full knowledge of a word by informing the students MORE regarding that word. Prefix
Antonyms: Words That Mean the Opposite
Synonyms: Words with the Same Meaning
English- multiple synonyms (words borrowed from other languages)
Synonyms are more precise.
Teachers should articulate differences among synonyms.
Antonyms: Words That Mean the Opposite
Antonyms express a shade of meaning just as synonyms do. For the word loud: soft, subdued, quiet, sedate, somber, dull, colorless.
Homonyms: Words That Confuse
Words with different meanings, but same pronunciation or same spelling.
EX: Write- right; air-heir; to-too-two; there-they’re-their
Students tends to confuse spelling.
Mini-lessons: on a poster students draw pictures and write sentences to contrast homophones.
The origin and historical development of a linguistic form.
Students use etymological information to learn how particular words evolved and what the words mean.
Originated in 1603 Native American word from the Algonquin tribe that means “he who strips bark”
Most words have literal and figurative meanings. Literal meaning-Explicit, dictionary meanings.
Figurative meaning-Metaphoric meanings. Idioms and comparisons.
Types of words
Tier 1 – Basic words used commonly or socially.
Tier 2 – Academic words used in a text or during a lesson
Tier 3 – Technical words used infrequently or content specific.
Used for understanding the book or unit.
Words that are confusing or hard to understand.
Words students will use in the future or for other topics.
Nurturing English Learners
Use examples for definitions.
Use related words.
Provide multiple encounters with words.
Consider what students already know about a word.
Types of Word-Study Activities
Word Posters: illustrations, used in a sentence, visualization
Word Maps: diagram used to examine a word
Possible sentences: activates background knowledge of a topic and increase curiosity before reading
Dramatizing words: students act out words for classmates
Word sorts: categorize words from a word wall into 2 or more categories
Semantic Feature Analysis: to learn the meanings of words that are conceptually related ex: plants or animals in a rain forest, planets in solar system
Word Learning Strategies
When students come across an unfamiliar word while reading, there are several things he/she can do:
Analyze root words and affixes
Check a dictionary
Sound out the word
Skip the word and keep readingAsk a teacher
Re-read sentence containing word
Use context clues. If this doesn’t help continue to next step
Examine word parts looking for familiar root words and affixes
Pronounce the word
Check the dictionary or ask the teacher.
Analyzing Word Parts
Using Context Clues
Students learn many words from context as they read.
Context clues provide information about the meaning of the word or part of speech.
This allows for inference.Modeling is the best way to teach this concept do a think aloud
Using knowledge of prefixes, suffixes and root words to unlick multisyllabic words.
Ex: omnivorous, carnivorous, herbivorous
Vorare (latin)= swallow up
Checking the Dictionary
Students who have word consciousness exemplify these characteristics:
Students use words skillfully, understanding the nuances of word meanings
Students gain a deep appreciation of words and value them
Students are aware of differences between social and academic language
Students understand the power of word choice
Students are motivated to learn the meaning of unfamiliar words
Can be frustrating
Many times students choose the wrong definition
Word might be used in definition. Ex: pollution- the act of pollutingTeach students how to look up words in the dictionary
Defined as the interest of learning and using words
Essential for vocabulary growth and comprehending the language of schooling
Vocabulary knowledge is generative– it transfers to and enhances students’ learning of other words
Ways to encourage word consciousness:
Model interest in words and use precise vocabulary
Share books about words
Highlight words of the day
Post words on word walls
Promote word play by sharing riddles, poems, songs
Difficult to assess students’ vocabulary knowledge.
No grade- level standards on how many or which words to learn.
Informal Assessment tools:
Self assessment: list that allows student to gauge learning
1= I don’t know this word at all
2= I’ve heard this before, but I don’t know the meaning
3= I think I know what this word means
4= I know one meaning for this word, and I can use it in a sentence
5= I know several meanings or other things about this word.
Observations: Watch how students use new words and strategies
Confernces: Talk with students about words used. Ask what they do when they come across an unfamiliar word. Discuss strategies
Rubrics: Include vocabulary items on rubrics to emphasize importance
Tests: cloze passage using newly formed words, quick write, word maps, drawing.