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Transcript of Migrations
31 countries — the 27 countries of the European Union (EU-27) plus Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, and Switzerland
can live and work anywhere they wish.
400 million people/area of 4,312,099 square kilometers Effects on the destination countries Effects on sending countries ‘’Better brain drain
than brain in the drain'' (Gandhi) Remittances vs skills Introduction Conclusion Labour Migration Migration after the 5th Enlargement Student Migration Migration from non-EU countries What is migration? Content:
- Labour Market
- Migration after the 5th Enlargement
- Student Migration
- Migration from non-EU countries Why is migration after the
5th Enlargement so important? - 12 new countries joined the EU
- huge differences in income between new and old Member States
- young work force
- "migration diversion" from Germany and Austria to the UK, Ireland and Sweden
- different destinations for Bulgaria and Romania
- huge increase in number of immigrants Worries of the natives:
- losing job
- decreasing salaries
- immigrants will seek for benefits No official data confirming these threats:
- stable unemployment rate
- growth of salaries among natives Problems:
- higher pressure on immigrants
to leave the country in times of crisis Germany case Positive:
- lower unemployment rate
- opportunity to develop language skills and create business contacts
- remittances Negative:
- "brain waste"
- shortages on labour market
- problem of immigrants from Russia, Belarus and Ukraine 1957: European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC)/the European Economic Community (EEC) were created as a customs union
citizens from BE, IT, FR, NL, LU, W-DE could move to join the labor markets with a work permission
1985 the Schengen Agreement was signed
Schengen Area: freedom of movement came to be guaranteed for workers, students, pensioners, and the unemployed, families
1992 Maastricht Treaty: the concept of a common European citizenship
3 months – working, studying, financially independent – 5 years, right of residence becomes permanent Current situation The benefits
of migration The costs
of migration An expansion of the labour supply
Reduced pressure on wage inflation
A fall in the NAIRU
Aggregate demand effects
Higher trend growth Depressing the real wages of domestic workers
Doubts about productivity effect
Increased pressure on the welfare state
Unemployment concerns Projections: 2015 - 13 million additional jobs - demand for highly skilled workers is expected to increase by 2.8% - demand for low-skilled workers is expected to decline by 1.4% EU will need to attract skilled migrants to address skill shortages in Europe’s engineering and computer technology sectors. Impact of Universities on probability of graduates finding jobs
Student dilemma: staying abroad vs. back home!
EU key dilemma and prognosis
Do EU governments want skilled immigrants to gaps in their local labour market?
Country that loses its best and brightest is less likely to develop its economy ?! -Impact of remittances on poverty in developing countries.
- Ones who have been researching and studying abroad;
ones who got competencies and think critically;
ones who can provide business ideas-
do their country need them ??? Remittances from EU countries in 2011 grew on average by less than eight percent in the corresponding period. The latest data from the German Bundesbank confirms this trend: euro remittance outflows from Germany in 2011 declined by about one per cent in comparis on with 2010. ‘‘For a successful career
in perhaps most importantly
to be surrounded by the right
people and being in the right place .’’ ‘’I think we need to be realized
abroad, but you have to try to
bring those skills home.’’ Immigration Asylum Future prospects Tampere Programme (1999-2004);
- A common EU asylum and migration policy
- A genuine European area of justice
- A Union wide fight against crime
- Stronger external action (i.e. outside the EU)
The Policy is currently under development
Do we need immigration from 3rd countries in the EU?
- uneven age structure
- shortage of highly-skilled workers
- shortage of public sector jobs
EU “blue card” A common asylum policy;
– minimum of standards
- UN Geneva Convention (1950)
- Dublin Treaty; Eurodac
- 302,000 applications for asylum in 2011 How will the common Immigration and Asylum policy develop in the future?
Integration of non-EU nationals in the host countries Migration in EU covers several dimensions:
- Labour Migration
- Student Migration
- Immigration from non-EU countries
It is important for the EU to co-operate on these issues, so that we can these the opportunities and tackle the problems that migration brings. Thank you for listening! - Lovisa Källmark
- Sara Rajačič
- Ivana Boskovic
- Tim Oeffler
- Wiktor Zieliński