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Video Tutorials - Best Practices

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Transcript of Video Tutorials - Best Practices


Video Tutorials & The Tree-Falling-In-The-Forest-Syndrome, Is Anyone Watching? Building a Better Video.

WARNING
Gentleman Thief at Work
_________
WHERE WERE WE JUNE 2014 ?
HOW LONG IS IT? - LENGTH
CAN I USE IT? - ACCESSIBILITY
COMPATIBILITY - BEST PRACTICES
Idea from a presentation by Nicole A. Martin and Ross Martin of Seminole State College of Florida, at the 16th Distance Library Services Conference 2014, Denver, CO. Adapted and used with permission.

* Over 100 Tutorials on YouTube created by RWWL

* Length of tutorials: from 44 seconds to over 10 minutes - top
ten averaged 2:42 in length

* YouTube Analytics - On avg only 23% of viewers watched till
the end and the rest only watched, on avg, 48% of the video

* Some in obvious places, some tucked away

* Many out-of-date

* On the cusp of moving to new website in mid summer
* Studies show videos over 2 to 3 minutes are too long and less likely to be viewed to
the end, and introductory material is largely ignored (Bowles-Terry, Hensley, &
Hinchliffe 2010), (Keba, Segno, & Schofield 2015)


*Length of video is tied to viewer's perception of its aesthetics and difficulty of
content. Shorter videos are considered more aesthetically pleasing and easier to
understand (Pomales-Garcia & Liu 2010)


* Seminole State study showed on average that only 35% of viewers watched
complete video - The average viewer only watched 54% of video (Martin & Martin
2014)


* Goldilocks Principle
: Not too fast, not to slow - Polite - Direct -
Empathetic - Use pauses to allow users time to process
information (Yu et al. 2009)

BEST PRACTICES - AUDIO
DID YOU FIND IT? - LOCATION
Actually more like
REASONABLE
Best Practices

Focusing on

Length
Audio
Location
Compatibility
Accessibility
BEST PRACTICES - LENGTH
* Keep videos short and to the point (Anderson and Mitchell, 2012)
- within a 2 to 3 minute range (Bowles-Terry, Hensley, and
Hinchliffe 2010)

* Mayer's Sementing Principle - People better able to absorb bite
sized segments - Create many smaller videos (O'Donoghue
2014)

* Create the Inverted Pyramid - most pertinent information should
be in the first half of the video. (Martin & Martin 2014)

* Be ruthless with introductory material
WHAT DID YOU SAY? - AUDIO
* Videos rated average or poor when narrator spoke too quickly or too
slowly (Morain & Swarts 2012)

* Viewers struggle learning when narration is separated from recorded
action by even a few seconds (Clark & Mayer 2008)

* Background music, especially playing while narration is occurring,
may distract viewers from the message (Goodfellow, Sich, & Torabi
2013)

* Coherence Principle suggests viewer learning is better without
extraneous elements including music (Mayer & O'Neil 2008)
* "Findability is at the center of a quiet revolution in how we
define authority, allocate trust, and make
decisions." - (Morville 2005, 15)

* 3 Click Rule Myth ... ??? - (Thurow 2014)

* Location, location, location - (Ergood, Padron, & Rebar 2012)

* Students not browsing Library Web Tutorial pages - (Hess
2013)
LOCATION - BEST PRACTICES
* Clicks secondary - Develop a scent - Focus on textual and graphical clues that
answer Where am I?, Where can I go and how can I get there?, Should I click on
this link?, Where have I visited before? (Thurow 2014)

* Location, location, location - place them where the students are, make sure you get
out of the single silo of the library website (Hess 2013)

* List of resources not as useful as a single search box geared to searchers needs,
e.g., one that just searches video tutorials (Hess 2013)

* Marketing that publicizes location of resources essential (Ergood, Padron, & Rebar
2012)

LENGTH - WHERE ARE WE NOW ?
* Still a work in progress - We turned off all the old videos that incorporated the old
website - We didn't yet have a best practices document but still word had gone out -
less than 3 minutes if possible - front load important information when possible

* Now - 31 videos - all under 1 year old - 28 under 3 minutes - longest being 4:30 long - top
ten averaged 2:04 in length

* 377 views total - Approx 12 views per video

* Top ten in viewership 48% of video watched on average - an avg of 26% of viewers
watched till end of top ten - for all 31 an avg of 36% of video was viewed
AUDIO - WHERE ARE WE NOW?
* Using USB microphones for truer sound

* On most videos music is limited to short introductory and
concluding clip

* Narrating in a professional timbre - hopefully Goldilocks would
be pleased
LOCATION - WHERE ARE WE NOW?
* Practice Presentation rooms have TDS Desk Videos folder which links to the videos plus
signage directing them to the TDS Research Guide



* All our student computer browsers, over 200 of them, open with two tabs, the open one is
RWWL and the second one is TRENDING VIDEOS (all videos also housed in Tutorials
Research Guide)

* Embedded - 9 of our video tutorials on ITC's Moodle & on the Library page which is linked
from everyone's home page - Investigating other schools' CMS's

* The amended Rehabilitation Act of 1973 - Section 508 dealing with the
accessibility of information in the technology realm. All organizations
receiving federal funds (RWWL schools) must make their information
accessible - persons with disabilities will be able to use the access the
information be provided with alternatives that are of "equal or greater
access" than the original (Wakimoto and Soules 2010)
* But some will say this is still a "separate but equal" policy rather than the promised parallelism
(Wentz, Jaeger, & Lazar 2011)

* Unlikely to be able to produce universal accessibility - many physical, cognitive and
cultural barriers - many of which cancel each other out (Clossen 2014)

* Disabilities to consider - Low vision, blindness, color blindness, hearing impairment, cognitive or
learning disabilities (Oud 2011)
ACCESSIBILITY - (LIMITED) BEST PRACTICES
*
Look to Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG - http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/) 2.0
and Voluntary Product Accessibility Template (VPAT http://www.state.gov/m/irm/
impact/126343.htm) - from the government - based upon 508 standards, for help

* Explain on-screen locations and images in more than one way - "the yellow rectangular
box" - (Wakimoto and Soules 2010)

* Captioning - Closed or Open - Captioning can cause cognitive overload for some so best to start
with closed captioning - (Oud 2011)

* YouTube has captioning capabilities - Vimeo has captioning ability through a third party company
- Amara

* Even with captioning provide scripts - (Martin and Martin 2014)

* For visually impaired consider keystrokes for video manipulation rather than mouse movement
and clicks - (Clossen 2014)
ACCESSIBILITY - WHERE ARE WE NOW?
* Many of the videos produced this year used language that provided alternative understanding
of images - The yellow, rectangular box

* We have yet to caption our videos or provide alternative scripts along with the video

* This is a large undertaking and we need to meet as a team to decide how to begin to make these
videos more compliant to disability concerns

* Part of the reason for our slow adoption is that we are moving soon to our own streaming
server and have yet to figure out what capabilities we'll have in this new environment
HOW ABOUT YOUR IPAD? - COMPATIBILITY
* Narration may increase sense that the material is more "personable" (Yu et al.
2009)

* Minimize use of background music - only when it adds something to the
message (Goodfellow, Sich, & Torabi 2013)

* Introductory audio directs listeners attention to auditory channel and
prepares them to listen to the presentation (Scales, Nicol, & Johnson 2014)
* Pew research - 64% of American adults own
smartphones - 15% of adults 18-29 are heavily
dependent on a smartphone for online access - (Smith
2015)
* Flash and HTML 5 - Languages and software used for structuring and presenting content on the
Web. YouTube officially supports HTML5 platform for delivery over Adobe Flash - Android only
has Flash if an add-on is purchased - even then no official support from Adobe - iPhone
doesn't support Flash - (Youtube Blog 2015), (Stella 2014)

* 57% of consumers will wait 3 seconds before abandoning a site - 65% of 18-24 year old adults
will abandon if site doesn't load in 2 seconds or less - Can academic users be far behind? -
(Yang 2010)
* Mobile First Design - Aspect ratio is the ratio of the width to the height of the image on a
television screen or device. What will fit a laptop and a iPhone? 16:9 is the ratio most often
used now. This allows for good viewing across devices. It is also the aspect ratio most often
used with High Definition for sharper resolution - (Martin and Martin 2014)

* Camtasia automatically adjusts between HTML5 and Flash. Check the software package you
use. (Captivate, an Adobe product is also HTML5 compliant)

* Flat Design - to minimize bounce-rate (the number of visitors who enter a site then leave rather
than continue) increase, make sure your platform (Research Guide, CMS, etc) is graphics and
multimedia lite other than the video - simple color scheme, substantial white space, on flat
plane without depth - (Keba, Segno, & Schofield 2015)


COMPATIBILITY - WHERE ARE WE NOW ?
* Mobile First - All new videos are 16:9 aspect ratio

* Research Guides and Moodle space are flat design

* We use Camtasia for all our Screen casts and Final Cut Pro X for live video - they produce
HTML5 compliant work
CONCLUSIONS
Didn't Focus On
Types of Software - Camtasia, Captivate, Jing, PowToon, etc.

Screencast vs. Animation vs. Live Action

Content - Concept vs. Resource Focused

Assessment

Workflow

Staff Training

ARE WE BETTER OFF NOW?
* The view percentages very similar to the old videos

* However, the average video is much shorter at just over 2 minutes long

* We've also place videos in strategic locations including a central Tutorial Research Guide -
We've gone to where the students are, their CMS, a pop-up tab when they
use the library computers, and links and embeds on the Distance Learning Students'
Research Guide - Those views have been above average so seem to validate strategic
placement
* We've greatly reduced the introduction time, working the pyramid effect
and moving to most important information first when possible

* No formal assessment done yet but anecdotal evidence seems to
validate the changes the literature has recommended
QUESTIONS?
Full transcript