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Cane Toads

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by

Blake Paterson

on 2 May 2013

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Transcript of Cane Toads

Survival in a Harsh Environment Cane Toads History In the winter of 1935 one hundred and one Cane Toads were brought to Gordonvale, Queensland, Australia from Hawaii to remove the Cane Beetles which were destroying crops of Sugarcane. The Cane Toad Adaptions Quick reproduction: Cane Toad females lay around 8,000 to 35,000 eggs twice a year. After just 48 hours these eggs begin to hatch

Can travel very large distances: Cane Toads can travel very long distances even in a hot and dry environment. They can do this as they can lose up to 50% of their body water and as long as there is a rock with wet soil underneath it every couple of kilometers they will not stop.

Secrete poison: Cane toads have parotoid glans on there shoulders which secret 14 different poisonous chemicals when threatened. These chemicals can cause various symptoms and death for some animals History The Cane Toad is native to South America. After being found to eat Cane Beetles there was a great push to introduce them to Australia. Why has there been such a rapid rise in Cane Toad numbers in Australia? Cane Toads have many adaptions that allow them to survive and thrive in the Australian environment. These include: The Effects Of The Cane Toad The cane toad has had a large impact on the wildlife of Australia but is only officially acknowledged as pests in some states. The Effects of The Cane Toad Cane toads eat an average of 200 food items per night; Leaving some insects quickly declining in numbers and other predators struggling to find enough food to survive. Defenses of the Cane Toad When a cane toad is threatened or attacked they will secrete poison from glands on the top of the toad’s head. This poison causes rapid heartbeat, excessive salivation and paralysis and possibly death. How are we to deal with the Cane Toad Many strategies have been used or proposed for the controlling of cane toad populations. Cane Toads This was before the invention of agricultural chemicals Only a few months after being introduced there was already a rapid rise in Cane Toad numbers The ability to reproduce quickly and have large amounts of eggs
They are very hardy animals that can survive a loss of 50% of their body water
They secrete poison from glans on the shoulder when threatened
Can travel very long distances in the wet season Species such as snakes, crocodiles and quolls from Australia have had a decline in population because of the cane toad; the poison released by the toad when eaten often end up fatal to many native animals. Animals such as the black snake have adapted to the cane toad, by rapidly evolving structural and behavioral adaptions in response to the can toads.
Cane Toads also can carry diseases which can be transmitted to native animals and have devastating effects.
If they can the cane toad will attempt to hop away using its strong back legs and hide in the surrounding environment. A non-affective strategy being killing large numbers of this species by hand. This did not control the cane toad population as cane toads breed quickly and in large numbers. A different idea is introducing Australian tarantulas and wolf spiders (which eat Cane Toads) which have their own toxins that when used on a cane toad makes the cane toad’s toxins inactive. Some people believe that doing nothing will work. When cane toads first reach an environment they cause devastating effects, however after living there for a few years the predators of the environment find that there is a new source of food and they start to use it to their advantage. Here is another Idea By Blake Paterson Bibliography http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/invasive/ferals/cane-toads.html

http://www.csiro.au/proprietaryDocuments/CSE_ctfacts.pdf

http://www.canetoadsinoz.com/index.html


http://www.australiangeographic.com.au/journal/australian-spiders-keep-cane-toad-numbers-in-check.htm

http://www.australiangeographic.com.au/journal/cane-toad-v-cane-toad-poison-its-own-worst-enemy.htm

http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/invasive/publications/cane-toad/factsheet.html
http://animals.nationalgeographic.com.au/animals/amphibians/cane-toad/

http://australianmuseum.net.au/Cane-Toad

http://www.canetoads.com.au/canetfact.htm
http://www.byron.nsw.gov.au/cane-toads

All visited on 9/4/13
As well as being toxic cane Toads can fill their lungs with air puffing themselves up and appearing bigger when threatened
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