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Native American Rights
Transcript of Native American Rights
Timeline The Indian Removal Act of 1830 This Act was passed by president Andrew Jackson in 1924. This gave the government power to relocate Native Americans on the eastern side of territory west of the Mississippi River. This is important to the history of Native Americans becuase this was one of the first steps that cocasians used to dehumanize the Native Americans be removing them from their land. As soon as the bill was signed into law, over 40,000 Indians moved across the Mississippi River into Oklahoma which was supposeldy worthless land. Many Indians died on this journey and is today known as the Trail of Tears. November 29, 1864 Chivington, a military leader brought his troops, who were already very drunk, to Sand Creek. Sand Creek was where Black Kettle and his tribe were positioned. On top of Black Kettle's Tepee was a white flag to represent peace with the white people. Chivington thought that shooting at them would be the perfect thing for the extinction of the Indians. More than 200 men, women and children were brutaly murdered, but some including Black Kettle managed to escape. This is an important part of Native American history becuase it represents how distrusting the Americans could be to humans. Also it shows that the Native Americans had many hard times, all surronding the fact that the Europeans thought they were "animals" and savages in the world. Sand Creek Massacre Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 On June 2, 1924 an act was passed by President Coolidge, giving Native Americans U.S. citizenship. It stated that all Indians born in the territory of the united states will be a citizen as long as the citizenship does not effect the right of any Indian to tribal or other properties. This is important to Native American rights becuase this was the first step for Americans to actually say that the Native Americans were real people and not just savages and they deserved equal rights under the constitution. American Indian Movement The American Indian Movement (AIM) are all about trying to give Natice Americans the justice. They want to give real justice becuase the white man has always treated Native Americans injustly and it is about time they get what they deserve, justice. They are one of the first spiritual or known as a religious re-birth of Native Americans. The AIM is important becuase the group is one of the very few groups that actually stand up for Native Americans rights. Pine Ridge Protest (1973) On Feburary 27, 1973, on the Pine Ridge reservation in South Dakota there was a stand off between the AIM and the National Guard. The stand off was about 71 days long and 2 FBI agents were killed and a Marshall was Paralyzed. The protest was about how Richard Wilson was elected the tribal chairmen, when less than 50% of the people voted. Many people wanted to impeach him but he postponed his own trial. Sioux leaders decided to bring in the AIM and started a protest. The people of the reservation wanted three demands; 1.Richard Wilson impeached and the government returned to tribal chiefs, 2.the dismissal of two BIA officials and a senate investigation on the BIA, and 3. the foriegn relations commitee is to hold hearing of 371 treaties between the US and other nations, which the US has not kept up on. This is important becuase the native americans are not having their voices be heard even in their own government. Leonard Peltir (shown above) was wrongfully imprisoned for "murdering" the FBI agents and basically being a political activist. Employment Divison of Oregon vs. Smith In 1991, the supreme court ruled that ruled that states and local governments could not show "compelling governmental interest" to justify the laws that limited or disgraced different religous exercises. This was becuase 2 men were denied unemployment benifits when they said they worshiped at a Native American church. Later in 1994 President Clinton signed a law that exempted the religious discrimination against those who use peyote in religous ceremonies. (peyote=hallucinogen) This is important becuase the Native Americans used hallucinogenic plants in many ceremonies. Also people came to america to get away from religous laws, and now we are making religous laws, which is very hypocritical. National Indian Gaming Commission (NIGC) There are about 400 Indian casinos in the United States. The casinos are operated by about 220 united states-recognized tribes. Theses casinos they run are seperated into 3 classes. The first to classes are traditional Indian gaming, for example bingo halls, poker halls, lotteries and don't require a liscense. The last class (3) has very large jackpots and high stake games, the states these places were located in were afraid that some organized crime would happen here. These casinos have actually reduced poverty in some areas and have decreased the number of unemployed people. The tribal casinos generate about 4.9 billion dollars in the western part of the US which helps the tribes greatly! Education Rights Alot of Native American children are being cheated out of their education becuase of reservation laws and state laws. In the past Native American children were put in schools to erase their religion, traditions and savageness from their minds. Now adays, though it is not as noticable, the children are still being told to get rid of their traditions. This is important becuase education is the key to problem solving, and everyday activites. If the tribes want to go back to actual tribes and that way of living they should be able to. They should not have to go to school taught be white people telling them there traditions are wrong. Indian Reorganization Act (IRA) In 1934, the united states passed the Indian Reorganization Act. This act ended many policies that were aimed to destroying Native American culture. This included some of the reservation land that was sold to non-native americans, could now be sold back to the tribes. This is important becuase Americans were finally able to see that Native Americans were people and they have their belifs just like the white people have their seperate beliefs. Hoover Spearfishing in Wisconsin Many Wisconsinites are very upset about Native Americans being able to spearfish up North. There have been many protests and even assualts on the individuals who spear walleye and other fish species. This huge upset has even got international attention becuase of all the hatred that white people put out onto posters or yelled at the innocent Native Americans. Around 1992 the Ojibwe people negotiated a deal with Wisconsin stating that they would spear only a certain amount of fish per lake so that sport fishermen would be able to still fish. I am glad that the Ojibwe people were able to at least keep their own traditions alive and not have them completly wiped out! Past Present