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Communicable Diseases

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by

Malak Al Hindi

on 23 November 2014

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Transcript of Communicable Diseases

CHICKENPOX
MEASLES
PERTUSSIS
Ms. Malak Al Hindi
Communicable Diseases
Communicable
Diseases
Define
Identify
Causative Agent
Mode of Transmission
Clinical Picture
Diagnostic Procedures
Treatment
Nursing Diagnosis
Of:
An illness caused by a specific infectious agent, or its toxic products through a direct mode of transmisson of that agent from a resvoir.
Incubation
Period
Time interval between infection or exposure to diseases & appearance of initial symptoms
Objectives:
Period of
Communicability
Time or times during which an infectious agent maybe transferred directly or indirectly from an infected person to another person
Mode of Transmission
Mechanism by which an infectious agent is transported from the reservoir to a susceptible human host
Direct
Indirect
contact
Droplet
Vehicle
Vector
Airborne
Fecal-Oral Transmission
Antibiotic
Pertussis immunoglobin
hydration
bed rest
Humidified oxygen
Therapeutic Management
. Hyperthermia
. Altered comfort
. Impaired skin integrity
. Alteration in nutrition
. Activity in tolerance
. Altered body image
Nursing Diagnosis
. Dehydration
. Otitis media
. Pneumonia
. Bronchitis
. Obstructive laryngitis
. Encephalitis
. 1-2 deaths per 1000 cases
Complications:
Clinical Manifestations
. Rubeola or Rubella?
. Millions of cases and deaths
. Highly contagious
. School age
. Winter and Spring
. in less than 6 months babies?
Rubeola
Pneumonia
Otitis media
Atelectaisis
Seizure
Hemorrhage
Weight loss and dehydration
Hernia
Complications:
. Agent: Bordetella pertussis
. Transmission: Direct or indirect
. Incubation Period: 6-20 days, usually 7-10 days
. Period of communicability: greatest during catarrhal stage before onset of paroxysms.
Pertussis (Whooping Cough)
Prevention
. Antiviral agent: Acyclovir
Varicella- Zoster after exposure in high risk children
. Supportive: Diphenhydramine or Antihistamines for itchiness
Skin care
Therapeutic Management:
. Secondary bacterial infections
. Encephalitis
Complications:
. Elevated temperature form lymphoadenopathy
. Irritability from pruritus
Constitutional signs and symptoms:
Prodromal stage:
. fever
. anorexia
. pruritic rash
in different stages
Clinical Manifestations:
. Agent: Varicella-Zoster Virus
. Transmission: Direct, airborne and contaminated objects.
. Incubation period: 2-3 weeks, usually 14-16 days
. Period of communicablity: 1 day before the eruption of lesions (prodromal stage) to 6 days after 1st crop of vesicles when crust have formed.
Chickenpox
. Active immunization: 12-15 months
. Passive immunization: post exposure
. Dose: Gamma Globin 0.25ml/kg
Prevention
. Measles IgM antibodies
. Isolation of the virus
Diagnostic procedures:
. Anorexia
. Malaise
. Generalized lymphoadenopathy
Constitutional signs and symptoms:
. Fever
. Malaise
. Coryza
. Cough
. Conjunctivitis
. Koplik spots
Prodromal stage (Catarrhal):
. Agent: Virus
. Transmission: Direct contact with droplets of infected person.
. Incubation Period: 10-20 days
. Period of Communicability:
4 days before to 5 days after rash appears (during prodromal stage)
Measles (Rubeola)
. Smallpox
. Measles
. Chickenpox
What’s wrong with me?
. PREVENTION
. ISOLATION
Conclusion
. Catarrhal stage: Sneezing, lacrimation, cough and low grade fever.


. Paroxysmal: dry hacking cough with whoop followed by vomiting worsen in night.
Clinical Manifestations:
Rash: begins as macule, rapidly progress to papule and then vesicle and crust
Chickenpox lesions
. Between 5 and 9 years old
. Late winter and early spring
VZV
. Isolation
. Bed rest
. Hydration
. Antipyretics
. Antibiotics
. Vitamin A supplementation
. Dim lights
. Use vaporizer
. Tepid baths
Nursing Interventions:
. 1977
. Edward Jenner
Smallpox?
. 3-4 days after the onset of prodromal stage
. Erythematous maculopapular eruption
. On face and downward
. Severe in earlier sites (confluent)
less intense in later sites (discrete)
. Brownish after 3-4 days
Rash:
Full transcript