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Copy of Preserving Tibetan pastures
Transcript of Copy of Preserving Tibetan pastures
Climate: 'third pole'
Conditions: harsh, fragile, variable
Environment: glacial, permafrost, grasslands, lakes, rivers
Resources: Resource rich, minerals, water
Ecology: Unique, many rare or endangered species
Desertification: 20.5 million Ha degraded by human activity already
Water Tower: Downstream influence on 40% of the world population
Pastoralist Population: ~ 2.5 million Enclosure of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau Policy Points Balance
Conversion to farming plots
Human factor causing degradation VS climate change (controlled VS uncontrolled)
Reaction to perceived threat of degradation
Knowledge and traditional management expertise
Perceived that extensive mobile pastoralism based on communal pasture use is backward and inefficient? Rationale for Developing Tibet (Stated)
Nomadic lifestyle seen as backward and uncivillized
Push to achieve ‘modernity’
Reduce poverty and inequality
Bring economic expansion
Rationale for Developing Tibet (Unstated)
Ensure Han superiority
Foster dependence on central government Policy Rationale Collectivisation Policy
- Four Ways Scheme
- Grasslands Law Enclosure and Internal Territorialisation
under the pretext of ‘Environmental Protection’ Mobility
new patterns of inequality and conflict
Structure of community and family
Gender roles Fencing
Zones and boundaries extend state control over territory
State control over pastoralists' access to natural resources
Sedentarisation and control of pastoralist populations Possible Solutions Recognition of the customary rights of pastoralists
Integrated sustainable rangeland and pastoral development programs
Mediatory role of Non Government Organisations in facilitating environmental protection that improves environmental conditions and local livelihoods